Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
General practitioners (GPs) in Denmark (n = 374) answered a questionnaire on attitudes toward including information on diet and sex in the prevention of coronary artery disease, cancers, osteoporosis, and weight problems. Risk factors for disease were ranked as follows: smoking, alcohol, stress, diet, physical exercise, heredity, and hygiene. Patients' lack of motivation, insufficient time for each patient, and inadequate knowledge about nutrition were listed by GPs as barriers to dietary counseling. GPs stated that the sex of the patient was important only for counseling on osteoporosis. Lack of time and insufficient knowledge were perceived as barriers to including sex-specific issues in prevention. One-half of the GPs were questioned about the issue of prevention on the basis of female case stories and the other half on the basis of male case stories with identical wording. Responses to the case stories indicated that GPs would give dietary guidance and recommend loss of weight to slightly overweight male patients to a much greater degree than to overweight female patients for prevention of coronary artery disease, give dietary counseling and recommend loss of weight and exercise to female patients more than to male patients for prevention of cancers, recommend a supplement of calcium and vitamin D for prevention of osteoporosis to female patients, and recommend weight gain and discuss psychosocial issues more with underweight female patients than with underweight male patients. Female GPs included measures of prevention such as dietary counseling, exercise prescription, dietary supplement prescription, and discussion of psychosocial issues to a greater extent than did male GPs.
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total consumption of 1-14 units of alcohol compared with no consumption seemed associated with a lower risk of stroke (adjusted RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.07). At lower stress levels, no clear associations were observed. Regarding subtypes, self-reported stress appeared only to modify the association between alcohol intake and ischaemic stroke events. Regarding specific types of alcoholic beverages, self-reported stress only modified the associations for intake of beer and wine. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the apparent lower risk of stroke associated with moderate alcohol consumption is confined to a group of highly stressed persons. It is suggested that alcohol consumption may play a role in reducing the risk of stroke by modifying the physiological or psychological stress response.
The authors examined the effect of 24-hour nicotine patches in smoking cessation among over-the-counter customers in Denmark, based on a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Participants were consecutive customers to whom nicotine patches were offered as the only treatment. Forty-two pharmacies in the areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen in Denmark participated in the trial, and 522 customers who smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were randomized to either nicotine patches or placebo from January to March 1994. Customers with chronic diseases and pregnant or breastfeeding women were excluded from the trial. Twenty-four-hour patches were offered free of charge during a 3-month period. Those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day started on a dose of 21-mg/day patches. Customers who smoked less started on patches of 14 mg/day; and for all of the participants, the dose was gradually reduced to 7-mg/day patches during the study period. Smoking behavior and compliance were recorded by means of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Smoking status was recorded in intervals of 4 weeks, which was fixed to be a treatment period, and 26 weeks after inclusion. There was a significant increase in smoking cessation rates after 8 weeks of follow-up but only among smokers who started on 21-mg/day patches. There was a marked placebo effect at each time of contact during the trial, especially in those smoking fewer than 20 cigarettes per day. Although the noncompliance rate was high overall due to discontinuation in the use of patches by relapsed smokers, noncompliance among successful quitters was low. More side effects were seen in the nicotine group than in the placebo group, but none of the reported side effects were serious. It appears that regular healthy smokers who were customers of nonprescribed nicotine patches and who received 21-mg/day nicotine patches benefited from the active treatment (44.1% stopped smoking after 4 weeks), but almost as many stopped smoking in the placebo group (37.3% after 4 weeks). No significant differences in smoking cessation rates were seen among smokers who started with the low-dose nicotine or placebo patches.
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour nicotine patches in smoking cessation among over-the-counter customers in Denmark based on a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were consecutive customers to whom nicotine patches were offered free of charge and as the only treatment. Forty-two pharmacies in the areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen in Denmark participated in the trial, and 522 customers who smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were randomized to either nicotine or placebo patches from January to March 1994. Twenty-four-hour patches were offered for a three-month period. Those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day started on 21 mg/day patches. Customers who smoked less started on 14 mg/day patches and all the participants were gradually reduced to 7 mg/day patches during the study period. Smoking behaviour and compliance were recorded by means of self-administered question-naires and telephone interviews. Smoking status was recorded following each four-week treatment period, and 26 weeks after inclusion. There was a significant increase in smoking cessations rates, but only among smokers who started on 21 mg/day patches after eight weeks of follow-up. No significant differences in smoking cessation rates were seen among smokers who started with the low dose nicotine or placebo patches.