Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The role of diet in the aetiology of renal cell carcinoma was investigated in a population-based case-control study in Denmark. Cases were 20-79 years old, with a histologically verified diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Controls were sampled from the general population and were frequency-matched on age and sex. A total of 351 cases (73% of the eligible) and 340 controls (68% of the eligible) were included in the study. Dietary information was obtained in a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the information was confirmed in a subsequent interview performed by trained interviewers who also elicited information on other suspected risk factors such as smoking, occupation, medical history, education and reproductive history. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios, and, both frequency of consumption of various food stuffs and computed nutrients were examined. A positive association was observed between risk of renal cell carcinoma and total energy intake (odds ratio, OR, for highest quartile compared to lowest: 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-3.0) for men, and 3.5 (95% CI 1.6-6.5) for women), fat intake (OR for highest quartile compared to lowest: 1.9 (95% CI 1.1-3.5) for men, and 3.3 (95% CI 1.6-6.9) for women). For women, an effect was also seen for intake of carbohydrates (OR for highest quartile compared to lowest: 3.2 (95% CI 1.5-6.8), while no protective effect was seen for vegetables or fruit. Dairy products may be associated with risk of renal cell cancer (OR for women using thickly spread butter compared to thinly spread: 11.4 (95% CI 2.8-45), OR for women who drank more than one glass of milk with 3.5% fat content compared to never drink milk: 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11). As expected, total energy intake, intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates were closely correlated making it difficult to identify one of the energy sources as more closely associated with risk of renal cell cancer than the other. Several energy sources have been identified as possible risk factors for renal cell carcinoma. It is possible that a high energy intake as such rather than the individual sources are responsible for the increased risk. Furthermore, dairy fats may be associated with renal cell carcinoma risk. The observed associations appeared stronger in women, and did not explain the association with obesity and low socio-economic status previously found in Denmark.
General practitioners (GPs) in Denmark (n = 374) answered a questionnaire on attitudes toward including information on diet and sex in the prevention of coronary artery disease, cancers, osteoporosis, and weight problems. Risk factors for disease were ranked as follows: smoking, alcohol, stress, diet, physical exercise, heredity, and hygiene. Patients' lack of motivation, insufficient time for each patient, and inadequate knowledge about nutrition were listed by GPs as barriers to dietary counseling. GPs stated that the sex of the patient was important only for counseling on osteoporosis. Lack of time and insufficient knowledge were perceived as barriers to including sex-specific issues in prevention. One-half of the GPs were questioned about the issue of prevention on the basis of female case stories and the other half on the basis of male case stories with identical wording. Responses to the case stories indicated that GPs would give dietary guidance and recommend loss of weight to slightly overweight male patients to a much greater degree than to overweight female patients for prevention of coronary artery disease, give dietary counseling and recommend loss of weight and exercise to female patients more than to male patients for prevention of cancers, recommend a supplement of calcium and vitamin D for prevention of osteoporosis to female patients, and recommend weight gain and discuss psychosocial issues more with underweight female patients than with underweight male patients. Female GPs included measures of prevention such as dietary counseling, exercise prescription, dietary supplement prescription, and discussion of psychosocial issues to a greater extent than did male GPs.
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total consumption of 1-14 units of alcohol compared with no consumption seemed associated with a lower risk of stroke (adjusted RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.07). At lower stress levels, no clear associations were observed. Regarding subtypes, self-reported stress appeared only to modify the association between alcohol intake and ischaemic stroke events. Regarding specific types of alcoholic beverages, self-reported stress only modified the associations for intake of beer and wine. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the apparent lower risk of stroke associated with moderate alcohol consumption is confined to a group of highly stressed persons. It is suggested that alcohol consumption may play a role in reducing the risk of stroke by modifying the physiological or psychological stress response.