In order to test hypotheses on diet and the risk of cancer, a prospective cohort study was established. A total of 57,055 persons living in Copenhagen and Aarhus, between 50 and 65 years of age, visited a study clinic between December 1993 and May 1997. The participants provided questionnaire data on diet and lifestyle. Furthermore, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biological material were collected. All participants will be followed by linkage to health registries including the Cancer Registry and by self-administered follow-up questionnaires. The purpose of this publication is to describe the data-base, which will be available for research in the years to come including the results of the first two years of follow-up.
In order to examine the levels of serum selenium in Europe, a collaborative study was conducted under the auspices of "The Working Group on Diet and Cancer" under "The European Organisation for Cooperation in Cancer Prevention Studies". A total of 502 serum samples was obtained from healthy, non-institutionized individuals, aged between 20 and 65 years, from 17 locations in 10 different countries in Europe. The selenium content of the samples was determined by a fluorometric method. All analyses were performed in one laboratory. Mean +/- standard deviation of the serum selenium given in microgram/l for the combined male and female data from the individual regions was: Belgium: 100 +/- 9; Denmark: Aarhus 78 +/- 15; France: Grenoble 79 +/- 15; Paris 82 +/- 11; W. Germany: Bavaria 70 +/- 10 Giessen 68 +/- 10, Heidelberg 76 +/- 9; Greece 63 +/- 14; Netherlands: 93 +/- 12; Portugal: Lissabon 102 +/- 10; Spain: Barcelona 87 +/- 14; Sweden: Göteborg 77 +/- 11, Malmö 90 +/- 14, Umeå 82 +/- 8, Uppsala 81 +/- 15; United Kingdom: Ipswich 107 +/- 13, London 109 +/- 14. None of the values represented toxic or overt deficiency levels.
Adipose tissue fatty acids, it has been proposed, reflect dietary intake. Using data from a validation study preceding a prospective study on diet, cancer, and health in Denmark, we were able to compare fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue biopsies from 86 individuals (23 men and 63 women) aged 40-64 y and dietary intake of fatty acids (as percentage of total fat) assessed by two 7-d weighed-diet records or by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) between fatty acid concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies (as percentage of total peak area) and dietary intake of fatty acid (percentage of total fat), determined from the diet records for men and women, respectively, were as follows: polyunsaturated fatty acids r = 0.74 and r = 0.46; n - 3 fatty acids of marine origin: eicosapentaenoic acid r = 0.15 and r = 0.61, and docosahexaenoic acid r = 0.47 and r = 0.57. Correlation coefficients obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire were slightly lower for most fatty acids.
BACKGROUND: Variation in diet associated with drinking patterns may explain why wine seems to reduce ischemic heart disease mortality. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the association between intake of different alcoholic beverages and selected indicators of a healthy diet. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark, from 1995 to 1997, and included 23 284 men and 25 479 women aged 50-64 y. The main outcome measures were groups of selected foods that were indicators of a healthy dietary pattern. RESULTS: Wine, as compared with other alcoholic drinks, was associated with a higher intake of fruit, fish, cooked vegetables, salad, and the use of olive oil for cooking in both men and women. Men who preferred beer and spirits had odds ratios of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.45) and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.60), respectively, for a high intake of salad compared with those who preferred wine. Higher wine intake was associated with a higher intake of healthy food items compared with intake of
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan;69(1):2-39925114
We have evaluated the reproducibility and relative validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a prospective study of risk factors for cervical neoplasia. The questionnaire is a modified version of one developed and evaluated in a middle-aged Danish population. In the present study, 122 women from the general population of Copenhagen, aged 20-29 years, completed the FFQ twice at a 1-year interval, and provided three 4-day dietary records during the intervening year. The mean nutrient intakes calculated from the first and second questionnaire were similar and, for most nutrients, close to those obtained from the dietary records. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the mean nutrient intakes from the two questionnaires ranged from 0.53 (95% CI, 0.39-0.65) for vitamin E to 0.76 (95% CI, 0.67-0.83) for vitamin B12 (median, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.56-0.76]). In comparisons between the second FFQ and the dietary records, the correlations ranged from 0.24 (95% CI, 0.07-0.40) for vitamin D to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.51-0.73) for sucrose (median, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.26-0.561). The correlations between FFQ and dietary records were generally higher after adjustment for energy intake (median, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.39-0.65]) and within-person variability (median, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.52-0.73]). On average, 71% of the women were classified in the same (+/- 1) quintile in the second FFQ and the dietary records. An average of 3.8% of the women were grossly misclassified into the highest and lowest quintiles by the dietary records. The relative validity of the FFQ in this population was similar to that reported earlier. It is concluded that the FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful scale for categorizing individuals according to their intake of energy and nutrients.
OBJECTIVE: To describe drinking patterns among individuals who prefer drinking wine, beer or spirits. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study obtaining detailed information on intake of wine, beer and spirits and on frequency of alcohol intake. Adjustment for gender, age, smoking habits, educational attainment and body mass index. SETTING: Denmark. SUBJECTS: 27, 151 men and 29, 819 women, randomly selected from Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Drinking pattern-steady or binge drinking. RESULTS: A vast majority (71%) of both men and women preferred wine or beer. At all levels of total alcohol intake, beer drinkers were most likely to be frequent drinkers. Thus, light drinkers of beer had an odds ratio for being frequent drinkers of 1.97 (95% confidence limits 1.50-2.58) as compared to light drinkers of wine (total alcohol intake 3-30 drinks per month), while people who preferred beer had an odds ratio of 1. 29 (1.19-1.40) compared with wine drinkers in the moderate drinking category (31-134 drinks per month). There were no significant differences in total alcohol intake between individuals preferring different alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSION: If binge drinking is less healthy than steady drinking, the relation between wine intake and coronary heart disease mortality could be subject to negative confounding, since beer drinkers seem to have the most sensible drinking pattern. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Cancer Society and the Danish National Board of Health. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 174-176
The authors examined the effect of 24-hour nicotine patches in smoking cessation among over-the-counter customers in Denmark, based on a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Participants were consecutive customers to whom nicotine patches were offered as the only treatment. Forty-two pharmacies in the areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen in Denmark participated in the trial, and 522 customers who smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were randomized to either nicotine patches or placebo from January to March 1994. Customers with chronic diseases and pregnant or breastfeeding women were excluded from the trial. Twenty-four-hour patches were offered free of charge during a 3-month period. Those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day started on a dose of 21-mg/day patches. Customers who smoked less started on patches of 14 mg/day; and for all of the participants, the dose was gradually reduced to 7-mg/day patches during the study period. Smoking behavior and compliance were recorded by means of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Smoking status was recorded in intervals of 4 weeks, which was fixed to be a treatment period, and 26 weeks after inclusion. There was a significant increase in smoking cessation rates after 8 weeks of follow-up but only among smokers who started on 21-mg/day patches. There was a marked placebo effect at each time of contact during the trial, especially in those smoking fewer than 20 cigarettes per day. Although the noncompliance rate was high overall due to discontinuation in the use of patches by relapsed smokers, noncompliance among successful quitters was low. More side effects were seen in the nicotine group than in the placebo group, but none of the reported side effects were serious. It appears that regular healthy smokers who were customers of nonprescribed nicotine patches and who received 21-mg/day nicotine patches benefited from the active treatment (44.1% stopped smoking after 4 weeks), but almost as many stopped smoking in the placebo group (37.3% after 4 weeks). No significant differences in smoking cessation rates were seen among smokers who started with the low-dose nicotine or placebo patches.