Objectives. The main aim of the Aiming toWards Evidence baSed inTerpretation of Cardiac biOmarkers in patients pResenting with chest pain (WESTCOR-study) (Clinical Trials number NCT02620202) is to improve diagnostic pathways for patients presenting to the Emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain. Design. The WESTCOR-study is a two center, cross-sectional and prospective observational study recruiting unselected patients presenting to the ED with suspected non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Patient inclusion started September 2015 and we plan to include 2250 patients, finishing in 2019. The final diagnosis will be adjudicated by two independent cardiologists based on all available information including serial high sensitivity cardiac troponin measurements, coronary angiography, coronary CT angiography and echocardiography. The study includes one derivation cohort (N?=?985) that will be used to develop rule out/rule in algorithms for NSTEMI and NSTE-ACS (if possible) using novel troponin assays, and to validate established NSTEMI algorithms, with and without clinical scoring systems. The study further includes one subcohort (n?=?500) where all patients are examined with coronary CT angiography independent of biomarker status, aiming to assess the associations between biomarkers and the extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Finally, an external validation cohort (N?=?750) will be included at Stavanger University Hospital. Prospective studies will be based on the merged cohorts. Conclusion. The WESTCOR study will provide new diagnostic algorithms for early inclusion and exclusion of NSTE-ACS and insights in the associations between cardiovascular biomarkers, CT-angiographic findings and short and long-term clinical outcomes.
In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of the outbreak strain in pork and pigs within the same supply chain led to the identification of pork in various forms as the source. In Norway, ten cases were identified, and the outbreak investigation quickly indicated meat bought in Sweden as the probable source and the Swedish authorities were alerted. Investigations in Sweden identified four human cases and two isolates from minced meat with the distinct profile. Subsequent trace-back of the meat showed that it most likely originated from Denmark. Through international alert from Norway on 19 December, it became clear that the Danish and Norwegian outbreak strains were identical and, later on, that the source of the outbreaks in all three countries could be traced back to Danish pork. MLVA was instrumental in linking the outbreaks in the different countries and tracing the source. This outbreak illustrates that good international communication channels, early alerting mechanisms, inter-sectoral collaboration between public health and food safety authorities and harmonised molecular typing tools are important for effective identification and management of cross-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common.
Preeclampsia is a complex heterogeneous disease commonly defined by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy. Women experiencing preeclampsia have increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. Preeclampsia and CVD share risk factors and pathophysiologic mechanisms, including dysregulated inflammation and raised blood pressure. Despite commonalities, little is known about the contribution of shared genes (pleiotropy) to these diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether genetic risk factors for hypertension or inflammation are pleiotropic by also being associated with preeclampsia.
We genotyped 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in women with preeclampsia (n?=?1006) and nonpreeclamptic controls (n?=?816) from the Norwegian HUNT Study. SNPs were chosen on the basis of previously reported associations with either nongestational hypertension or inflammation in genome-wide association studies. The SNPs were tested for association with preeclampsia in a multiple logistic regression model.
The minor (G) allele of the intronic SNP rs17367504 in the gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was associated with a protective effect on preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.80) in the Norwegian cohort. This association did not replicate in an Australian preeclampsia case-control cohort (P?=?0.68, odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.32, minor allele frequency?=?0.15).
MTHFR is important for regulating transmethylation processes and is involved in regulation of folate metabolism. The G allele of rs17367504 has previously been shown to protect against nongestational hypertension. Our study suggests a novel association between this allele and reduced risk for preeclampsia. This is the first study associating the minor (G) allele of a SNP within the MTHFR gene with a protective effect on preeclampsia, and in doing so identifying a possible pleiotropic protective effect on preeclampsia and hypertension.
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Cites: PLoS One. 2014 Feb 05;9(2):e8749724505291
Cites: Bioinformatics. 2008 Dec 15;24(24):2938-918974171
Campylobacter sp. is the most common cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in Sweden and the incidence has been increasing. Case-control studies to identify risk factors have been conducted in several countries, but much remains unexplained. The geographical distribution of campylobacter infections varies substantially, and many environmental factors may influence the observed pattern. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) offer an opportunity to use routinely available surveillance data to explore associations between potential environmental risk factors showing a geographical pattern and disease incidence, complementing traditional approaches for investigating risk factors for disease. We investigated associations between campylobacter incidence and environmental factors related to water and livestock in Sweden. Poisson regression was used to estimate the strength of the associations. Positive associations were found between campylobacter incidence and average water-pipe length per person, ruminant density, and a negative association with the percentage of the population receiving water from a public water supply. This indicates that drinking water and contamination from livestock may be important factors in explaining sporadic human campylobacteriosis in Sweden, and that contamination occurring in the water distribution system might be more important than previously considered.
To study the importance of weight change with regard to mortality in older people.
Prospective cohort study.
The cohort includes participants in the Hordaland Health Study, Norway, 1997-99 (N=2935, age 71-74 years) who had previously participated in a survey in 1992-93.
Participants with weight measured at both surveys were followed for mortality through 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate risk of death according to changes in weight. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for people with stable weight (± 3 kg were significantly associated with increased risk of mortality. Thus, weight should be routinely measured in older adults.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) catalyzes three sequential reactions that metabolize derivatives of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. Impaired MTHFD1 flux has been linked to disturbed lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. However, limited information is available on its relation to the development of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease.
We explored the association between a MTHFD1 polymorphism (rs1076991 C?>?T) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and potential effect modifications by folic acid/B12 and/or vitamin B6 treatment in suspected stable angina pectoris patients (n?=?2381) participating in the randomized Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial (WENBIT). During the median follow-up of 4.9 years 204 participants (8.6%) suffered an AMI. After adjusting for established CVD risk factors, the MTHFD1 polymorphism was significantly associated with AMI (HR: 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23-1.81). A similar association was observed among patients allocated to treatment with vitamin B6 alone (HR: 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.31), and an even stronger relationship was seen in patients treated with both vitamin B6 and folic acid/B12 (HR: 2.35; 95% CI, 1.55-3.57). However, no risk association between the MTHFD1 polymorphism and AMI was seen in patients treated with placebo (HR: 1.29; 95% CI, 0.86-1.93) or folic acid/B12 (1.17; 95% CI, 0.83-1.65).
A common and functional MTHFD1 polymorphism is associated with increased risk of AMI, although the risk seems to be dependent on specific B vitamin treatment. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the possible mechanisms, also in order to explore potential effect modifications by nutritional factors.
In the adult population, serum cholesterol level and risk of cardiovascular disease are related to some extent to habits and lifestyle established at an early age. We have estimated serum total cholesterol levels by means of a dry chemical method and have collected information on established cardiovascular risk factors among 1,203 young Norwegian men at conscription. 30 of the recruits with the highest serum cholesterol levels were later examined in the hospital's out-patient clinic. A total of 30.8% of the recruits were daily smokers. Mean serum total cholesterol was 4.05 mmol/l with a 97.5 percentile value of 6.31 mmol/l. The prevalence of coronary heart disease among parents was significantly higher among recruits from the upper cholesterol quintile (4.2%) compared with those in the lowest quintile (0.8%) (p = 0.02). These findings show that cholesterol screening at conscription is feasible and can be used to identify a group of men at high risk of subsequently developing cardiovascular disease.
High plasma choline has been associated with the metabolic syndrome and risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. However, dietary choline is not correlated with choline plasma concentrations, and there are few studies and contradictory evidence regarding dietary choline and cardiovascular events. In addition, a recommended dietary allowance for choline has not been established and remains a point of contention. This study assessed the association between dietary choline, including choline forms, and risk of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP). In total 1981 patients (80% men, median age 62) from the Western Norway B Vitamin Intervention Trial were included in this analysis. Information on dietary choline was obtained using a 169-item food frequency questionnaire. The Cardiovascular Disease in Norway project provided data on AMI. Risk associations were estimated using Cox-regression analysis using energy-adjusted choline intake. Median (25th, 75th percentile) total energy-adjusted choline intake was 288 (255, 326) mg/d. During a median (25th, 75th percentile) follow-up of 7.5 (6.3, 8.8) years, 312 (15.7%) patients experienced at least one AMI. Increased intakes of energy-adjusted choline (HR [95% CI] per 50?mg increase 1.11 [1.03, 1.20]), phosphatidylcholine (HR per 50?mg increase 1.24 [1.08, 1.42]) and sphingomyelin (HR per 5?mg increase 1.16 [1.02, 1.31]) were associated with higher AMI risk. In conclusion, higher dietary intakes of total choline, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin were associated with increased risk of AMI in patients with SAP. Future studies are necessary to explore underlying mechanisms for this observation.