Background Sitting in new chairs or sofas has elicited dermatitis in numerous patients in Finland and in the U.K. since autumn 2006. The cause of the dermatitis seemed to be an allergen in the furniture materials. Objectives To determine the cause of the dermatitis in patients with furniture-related dermatitis. Methods Altogether 42 patients with furniture-related dermatitis were studied. First, 14 Finnish patients were patch tested with the standardized series and with the chair textile material. A thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) strip and an extract made from the same textile material were tested in seven Finnish patients. The test positive spot of the TLC and the content of a sachet found inside a sofa in the U.K. were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All chemicals analysed were patch tested in 37 patients. Results A positive patch test reaction to the chair textile and to its extract was seen in all patients tested, one-third of whom had concurrent reactions to acrylates. Positive reactions to the same spot of the TLC strip were seen in five of seven patients and dimethyl fumarate was analysed from the spot as well as from the sachet contents. Dimethyl fumarate (0.01%) elicited positive reactions in all the patients. The other chemicals analysed did not elicit positive reactions, but one patient in the U.K. had a positive reaction to tributyl phosphate. Conclusions Sensitization to dimethyl fumarate was seen in all the patients with furniture-related dermatitis. Concurrent sensitization or cross-reactions were common among the sensitized patients.
Positive skin prick test reactions to carmine red (E120) occur in approximately 3% of the patients studied for food allergy. Carmine ingestion associated systemic symptoms are occasionally suspected, but sufficient information of proven carmine allergy is not available.
To analyse carmine related symptoms in skin prick test positive patients a cohort of 23 patients with suspected allergy to carmine red was subjected to a single-blind placebo-controlled oral challenge test with carmine red.
Five patients developed clinical symptoms during the placebo-controlled oral challenge. As a result, the overall frequency of clinical carmine allergy is estimated to be 0.7% in general dermatology patients studied for food-associated symptoms.
Oral challenge test provides a valuable in vivo tool to better inform patients with positive skin prick tests to additives to avoid false allergy diets.
In February 2007, an epidemic of severe dermatitis from Chinese recliner chairs and sofas started to unfold first in Finland and a few months later in the UK. Some patients reacted in patch tests (PTs) strongly to the material of their furniture, either leather or fabric. There have been hundreds of reports of chair or sofa dermatitis from Finland and the UK, with all cases linked to the same furniture factory in China. Clinical findings in both countries were very similar and unlike any known dermatosis. Many cases have been quite severe, resembling mycosis fungoides or septic infections, requiring hospitalization. Commercial PTs did not reveal the cause but a fungicide was strongly suspected, although such use was denied by the factory. The laboratory of Malm? University Dermatology Clinic has helped in the process by making thin layer chromatograms from sofa or chair materials and test substances of suspected chemicals. Finally, sachets marked with 'mouldproof agent' were found in varying numbers and distribution in the sofas. These contained dimethyl fumarate (DMF) which proved in skin tests to cause strong positive reactions with down to 0.01 dilution. Reports from other countries (Belgium, France, Ireland, Sweden and Spain) have since appeared, and the EU has banned the use of DMF in consumer products.
The occurrence and course of hand dermatitis in hospital workers was studied on the basis of the patient register of an occupational specialist and by a clinical follow-up study. About 1% of all the hospital workers had had dermatitis, cleaners, kitchen workers and nurses most frequently. 54% of the patients who were clinically studied had suffered from periodic symptoms and 35% had current hand dermatitis. Those who had previous or present atopic dermatitis had most frequently developed dermatitis during the first year of their service. An atopic constitution seemed to predispose to the development of permanent or periodic hand dermatitis. The patients with sensitivity to nickel or fragrances had relapses in the majority of cases. During the study period, the incidence of new dermatitis cases was constant, but the number of days sick leave showed a decreasing tendency.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic used in anaerobic and severe complicated infections. It is often selected for patients with a history of allergy to other antibiotics.
To study the occurrence of clindamycin hypersensitivity and to determine whether skin tests are useful in cases of suspected clindamycin allergy.
Six patients with an exanthematous rash and a history strongly suggestive of clindamycin hypersensitivity were studied with skin tests and oral exposure. Cases of suspected adverse drug reactions to clindamycin reported to the National Register of Adverse Effects of Drugs (NRAED) in Finland during 1973-2000 were analysed.
In the skin tests true-positive patch test reactions were seen in four of six patients, while 22 healthy control patients were negative. One false-positive and one false-negative patch test reaction were seen. During 1973-2000, 29 suspected cases of skin and/or mucosal membranes affected by clindamycin were reported to the NRAED.
Clindamycin hypersensitivity is not common. Delayed-type allergic reactions occur and patch tests are useful in those cases. Oral exposure is the method of choice if possible, as false-negative and false-positive reactions may occur.
Dental products contain many allergens, and may cause problems both for patients undergoing dental treatment and for dental personnel because of occupational exposure. Individual patch test clinics may not study sufficient numbers of patients to collect reliable data on uncommon allergens.
To collect information on dental allergens based on a multicenter study.
The Finnish Contact Dermatitis Group tested more than 4,000 patients (for most allergens, 2,300 to 2,600 patients) with dental screening series. Conventional patch testing was performed. The total number and percentage of irritant (scored as irritant [IR] or doubtful [?]) and allergic (scored as +, ++, or +++) patch test reactions, respectively, were calculated, as well as the highest and lowest percentage of allergic patch test reactions recorded by the different patch test clinics. A reaction index (RI) was calculated, giving information on the irritancy of the patch test substances.
The most frequent allergic patch test reactions were caused by nickel (14.6%), ammoniated mercury (13%), mercury (10.3%), gold (7.7%), benzoic acid (4.3%), palladium (4.2%) and cobalt (4.1%). 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2.8%) provoked most of the reactions caused by (meth)acrylates. Menthol, peppermint oil, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate, and amalgam alloying metals provoked no (neither allergic nor irritant) patch test reactions.
Patch testing with allergens in the dental screening series, including (meth)acrylates and mercury, needs to be performed to detect contact allergy to dental products.
Contact sensitivity to cosmetics is common, but the sensitizing chemicals vary between countries and study periods. The present survey aimed at revealing the recent trends in patch test sensitivity with cosmetic chemicals in Finland. We report a retrospective multicentre survey of patch test reactions focusing on cosmetic-related substances and comparing the test results in 1995-97 with those in 2000-02. The most striking increases in the frequency of the patch test sensitivity were found with balsam of Peru and propolis from 4.0% to 6.2% (P
A study of the prevalence of atopic disorders among 15-16-year-old teenagers was carried out in a coastal urban town in south-western Finland. Altogether, 1712 children were found in that age group, all previously examined by a pediatrician. Each child who had present or previous allergic diseases was invited for a detailed study, a total of 434 (25%) pupils. Of these patients 416 (95.8%) participated in clinical examination and skin testing. The prevalence of atopic diseases was 21% in the studied group; atopic eczema was found in 9.7%, allergic rhinitis in 14% and asthma in 2.5%. Of subjects who had rhinitis, 38% also had atopic eczema, while rhinitis--as the only symptom--was found in 8.8%. Figures obtained from this survey suggest that the prevalence rates of atopic diseases are about the same as found 10 years ago in Finland and they correspond also with other recent reports.