The aim of the study was to determine the pulmonary concentrations of mineral fibers in the Finnish male urban population and to evaluate the analysis of pulmonary fiber burden by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as an indicator of past fiber exposure.
The pulmonary concentration of mineral fibers was determined by SEM and compared with occupational history for a series of 300 autopsies of urban men aged 33 to 69 years.
The concentration of fibers (f) longer than 1 micron ranged from
Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) has a key role in the aggregation of thrombocytes, and it also mediates intimal hyperplasia after endothelial injuries; the possible association of the Pl(A1/A2) polymorphism of the gene for GPIIIa with coronary thrombosis and with the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still to be confirmed. Therefore, the association of the Pl(A) polymorphism with the development of coronary atherosclerosis, coronary narrowing, and myocardial infarction (MI) was studied in a prospective, consecutive autopsy series of 300 middle-aged, white Finnish men (33 to 69 years) suffering sudden out-of-hospital or violent death. Coronary atherosclerosis was measured morphometrically and the coronary stenosis percentage determined from a cast rubber model of the coronary tree. We found a significant inverse relation (P=0.01) between the Pl(A2)-positive genotype and coronary artery stenosis. The frequency of possessing the Pl(A2) allele was significantly (odds ratio [OR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22 to 0.98) lower among men with >50% coronary stenosis (18.3%) than among those with
In January 1999, a team of Finnish forensic experts under the mandate of the European Union (EU forensic expert team, EU-FET) performed forensic investigations in a sovereign state, in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The team served as a neutral participant in the forensic investigation of victims of an incident at Racak, which was receiving considerable international attention. The Finnish team performed forensic autopsies, monitored forensic autopsies performed by local experts and verified findings of earlier executed autopsies. The victims had sustained varying numbers of gunshot wounds, which were established to be the cause of death. The manner of death remained undetermined by the EU-FET, because the scene investigation and the chain of custody for the bodies from the site of the incident to the autopsy were impossible to verify by the team. The events at Racak were the first of those leading to charges by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) against the highest authorities in power in the FRY for crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war.
The study aimed to evaluate the risk of pleural plaques according to the degree of past exposure to asbestos, type of amphibole asbestos, and smoking, as well as to estimate the aetiologic fraction of asbestos as a cause of plaques among urban men.
The occurrence and extent of pleural plaques were recorded at necropsies of 288 urban men aged 33 to 69 years. The pulmonary concentration of asbestos and other mineral fibres was analysed with scanning electron microscopy. The probability of past exposure was estimated from the last occupation.
Pleural plaques were detected in 58% of the cases and their frequency increased with age, probability of past occupational exposure to asbestos, pulmonary concentration of asbestos fibres, and smoking. The risk of both moderate and widespread plaques was raised among asbestos exposed cases, and the risk estimates were higher for widespread plaques than for moderate plaques. The age adjusted risk was higher for high concentrations of crocidolite/amosite fibres than for anthophyllite fibres. The aetiologic fraction of pulmonary concentration of asbestos fibres exceeding 0.1 million fibres/g was 43% for widespread plaques and 24% for all plaques. The median pulmonary concentrations of asbestos fibres were about threefold greater among cases with widespread plaques than among those without plaques. No increased risk of pleural plaques was associated with raised total concentrations of non-asbestos fibres.
The occurrence of pleural plaques correlated closely with past exposure to asbestos. The risk was dependent on the intensity of exposure. Due to methodological difficulties in detecting past exposures to chrysotile and such low exposures that may still pose a risk of plaques, the aetiologic fractions calculated in the study probably underestimate the role of asbestos.
Cites: J R Nav Med Serv. 1978 Summer;64(2):88-104682152