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Airborne moulds and actinomycetes in work environment of farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235948
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:91-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987
Author
M H Kotimaa
E O Terho
K. Husman
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:91-100
Date
1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Aspergillus - isolation & purification
Cereals
Dust
Farmer's Lung - etiology
Finland
Humans
Micromonosporaceae - isolation & purification
Spores, Fungal
Abstract
The aim of this series of studies was to investigate the quality and quantity of farmers' exposure to airborne spores during the handling of hay or grain. In the beginning, the Petri dish method and later a six-stage Andersen sampler were used to collect the samples. The number of spores of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi, thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group were determined in order to find possible causative agents of farmer's lung disease. The level of exposure varied from 10(4) cfu/m3 to 10(7) cfu/m3 (cfu = colony forming unit). In hay, fungi of the A. glaucus group usually dominated. In grain the most common moulds were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. In both hay and grain the most common thermophilic actinomycete was Thermoactinomyces vulgaris; Micropolyspora faeni was found less frequently. Silaging was found to be the best method to prevent moulding of hay. Chemicals added during baling did not satisfactorily prevent moulding of hay. For stored grain, however, the best results were obtained with propionic acid treatment. The quality and quantity of airborne spores found suggests that farm work exposes farmers to a high risk of becoming sensitized, which leads to the development of asthma or farmer's lung. Few of the methods presently available for making or storing hay and grain can satisfactorily prevent moulding. So far, use of personal dust respirators with a type P2 (previously II b) filter seems to be the only way to effectively diminish exposure to spores.
PubMed ID
3478222 View in PubMed
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Atopy is a predisposing factor for chronic bronchitis among farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103465
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1990;17(1):105
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
E O Terho
K. Husman
V. Notkola
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Allergology, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1990;17(1):105
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - immunology
Bronchitis - immunology
Chronic Disease
Finland
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - complications
Smoking - adverse effects
PubMed ID
2305772 View in PubMed
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Atopy, smoking, and chronic bronchitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234384
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1987 Dec;41(4):300-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
E O Terho
K. Husman
I. Vohlonen
O P Heinonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Kuopio University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1987 Dec;41(4):300-5
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bronchitis - epidemiology - etiology
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypersensitivity - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Occupations
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
The aim was to test the hypothesis that atopy increases the occurrence of chronic bronchitis. Relations between atopy, smoking, and chronic bronchitis were studied in farmers. The data were from two successive postal surveys and a skin prick tested subsample. The cross-sectional study consisted of 9017 farmers. Those 6899 farmers who did not have chronic bronchitis at the beginning and who continued farming were followed for three years. A sample of 150 farmers was skin-tested with 36 allergens. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis (rate per 1000), standardised for age and sex, was 41 in non-atopic non-smokers, 101 in atopic non-smokers, 106 in non-atopic smokers, and 257 in atopic smokers (effect of atopy: p less than 0.001; effect of smoking: p less than 0.001). The standardised incidence rates of chronic bronchitis (per 1000 farming years) were 14, 34, 36, and 50, respectively (atopy: p less than 0.001; smoking p less than 0.001). The relative risk of chronic bronchitis, calculated from the incidence data adjusting for the effects of age, sex, smoking or atopy by logistic regression analysis was 2.2 for atopy (95% confidence interval 1.8-2.7) and 2.3 for smoking (1.8-2.9). Only 20 farmers had chronic bronchitis in the skin-tested subjects; the results were consistent with the findings in the surveys but did not reach statistical significance for atopy. In conclusion, atopy and smoking have independent and additive effects on the occurrence of chronic bronchitis at least in dusty farming work.
Notes
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1976 Feb;84(2):134-91252041
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979 Feb;119(2):193-203434592
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1980 Feb;121(2):329-387362139
Cites: Lancet. 1965 Feb 27;1(7383):445-814241880
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1982 Sep;70(3):199-2047108071
Cites: J Occup Med. 1983 Jan;25(1):43-76338175
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1965 Feb;10:338-4314232919
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1981 Mar-Apr;36(2):75-817212779
PubMed ID
3502671 View in PubMed
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Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature250539
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976 Dec;2(4):240-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1976
Author
H. Hänninen
L. Eskelinen
K. Husman
M. Nurminen
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976 Dec;2(4):240-55
Date
Dec-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - chemically induced
Attention - drug effects
Automobiles
Clinical Trials as Topic
Cognition Disorders - chemically induced
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Humans
Learning Disorders - chemically induced
Memory Disorders - chemically induced
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced
Personality Disorders - chemically induced
Psychological Tests
Psychomotor Disorders - chemically induced
Solvents - adverse effects
Time Factors
Toluene - adverse effects
Verbal Learning - drug effects
Vision Disorders - chemically induced
Abstract
The behavioral effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents were investigated in a comparison of the test results of 100 car painters with those of a reference group. The test battery included tests for intelligence, memory, psychomotor performances, and personality. In addition to the comparison of the mean results, two discriminant function analyses were made. In one, only the performance test variables were used, but in the other personality variables were also included. The results indicated impairments in psychological performances, as well as personality changes in the exposed group. Impairments in visual intelligence and verbal memory and a reduction of emotional reactivity were the central features of the adverse effects of solvent exposure, but the behavioral disturbances also involved several other functions, including performance on a verbal intelligence test. The possible role of the differences in the initial intelligence levels were controlled with a separate comparison of the test results of 33 pairs of exposed and nonexposed subjects who were matched for age and for their intelligence level, measured during the military service. The discriminant function analyses were based on the results of these matched subgroups and tested in the rest of the material. According to the results the sensitivity of the psychological test methods was high, but the specificity somewhat low, with regard to solvent exposure. The concentration of various solvents included in the exposure of car painters were low, the summated exposure corresponding corresponding to 32% of the Finnish threshold limit value. The possible role of a potentiating effect of the solvent in the development of behavioral disturbances is discussed.
PubMed ID
798266 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of farmers who have obtained personal dust respirators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235950
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:199-205
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987
Author
R. Virolainen
K. Tupi
E O Terho
K. Husman
V. Notkola
I. Vohlonen
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:199-205
Date
1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Agriculture
Attitude to Health
Farmer's Lung - prevention & control
Female
Finland
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Protective Devices
Respiratory Protective Devices
Sex Factors
Vocational Education
Abstract
A postal survey was used to investigate the characteristics of farmers who have acquired dust respirators. In 1979 about a quarter of the farmers were using dust respirators, men more often than women. The more vocational training the farmer had and the larger the area of land under cultivation the more likely he was to own a dust respirator. Grain producers had purchased the protective devices more frequently than other farmers had. Farmers who participated in the occupational health intervention during 1980-82 had acquired dust respirators considerably more often than those in the control group. In the intervention group men under 30 years had most frequently purchased the dust respirators. Participation in the intervention influenced the acquisition of dust respirators more than did occurrence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis or farmer's lung.
PubMed ID
3478218 View in PubMed
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Clinical neurological findings among car painters exposed to a mixture of organic solvents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246020
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1980 Mar;6(1):33-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1980
Author
K. Husman
P. Karli
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1980 Mar;6(1):33-9
Date
Mar-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Automobiles
Central Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced
Finland
Hand - innervation
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - physiopathology
Pain - chemically induced - physiopathology
Paint - adverse effects
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced
Sensory Thresholds
Solvents - adverse effects
Vibration
Abstract
A full clinical neurological examination was used to study the possible effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of mixtures of organic solvents on the nervous system. The exposed group consisted of 102 male car painters and the referents of 102 age- and sex-matched locomotive engineers and assistants. The psychoorganic syndrome, a decrease in the sense of light touch and pain, and an increase in the vibration threshold were more frequent among the car painters than among the referents, and the observed differences of these frequencies were statistically significant. The sense of vibration had been affected in the lower extremities of 65 of the 102 car painters and in 25 of the referents. Sensory functions seem to be the most vulnerable part of the nervous system of workers chronically exposed to different organic solvents.
PubMed ID
6247761 View in PubMed
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Effect of indoor feeding season for cattle on lung function of dairy farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235951
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:188-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987
Author
M. Rautalahti
E O Terho
I. Vohlonen
J. Nuutinen
K. Husman
O. Korhonen
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:188-96
Date
1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animal Feed
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cattle
Dairying
Farmer's Lung - etiology - physiopathology
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
Risk factors
Seasons
Spirometry
Abstract
The effect of the indoor feeding season for cattle on pulmonary function was studied in 91 randomly selected healthy, non-smoking dairy farmers who did not use personal dust respirators. All the farmers lived in the rural municipality of Pielavesi in eastern Finland. The reference group consisted of 90 healthy, non-smoking urban dwellers who were teachers randomly selected from all the teachers employed by the city of Kuopio (situated in the same administrative district as Pielavesi). Studies of pulmonary function included flow-volume spirometry and measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity. Among farmers, even a follow-up period of only 6 months was long enough to reveal restrictive impairment in lung function; among teachers restrictive impairment was not found. No evidence of impairment of pulmonary diffusing capacity was found in either of the study groups during the follow-up. Among teachers, changes in lung function did not differ from those previously reported as physiologically normal.
PubMed ID
3478217 View in PubMed
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Effects of respiratory morbidity on occupational activity among farmers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235912
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:206-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1987
Author
K. Tupi
I. Vohlonen
E O Terho
K. Husman
Author Affiliation
Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Finland.
Source
Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:206-11
Date
1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Bronchitis - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disability Evaluation
Farmer's Lung - epidemiology
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract
Work-related respiratory diseases are common among farmers. Few studies, however, have dealt with the consequences of respiratory diseases for the lives of the afflicted farmers. To estimate the socioeconomic consequences of respiratory diseases in the farming population, we made a cross-sectional study and a follow-up study. In 1979 farmers with farmer's lung were twice as likely as healthy farmers to plan to reduce their farming work or to stop farming completely. Fifteen percent of the farmers who developed chronic bronchitis during a three-year follow-up had decided to reduce farming work, close down the farm or change the line of production on the farm. The respective rate for healthy farmers was 8%. In 1982, after the follow-up study of new cases of respiratory diseases, the rate of giving up occupational activities was twice as great among individuals with farmer's lung or asthma as in the rest of the farming population. Based on this study, we estimated that of the new cases of respiratory diseases, every tenth will stop farming in the near future, owing to one of the respiratory diseases analyzed. In Finland about 300 farmers per 100,000 and a total of about 600 farmers annually reduce their farming work or stop farming due to respiratory diseases.
PubMed ID
3499343 View in PubMed
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Exposure to endotoxins and microbes in the treatment of waste water and in the industrial debarking of wood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194206
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Aug;67(2):171-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
R. Sarantila
M. Reiman
J. Kangas
K. Husman
H. Savolainen
Author Affiliation
City of Kokkola, Post Office Box 43, FIN-67101 Kokkola, Finland.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Aug;67(2):171-8
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Endotoxins - isolation & purification
Finland
Fungi - isolation & purification
Humans
Limulus Test
Occupational Exposure
Seasons
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Wood
PubMed ID
11429673 View in PubMed
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Extrinsic allergic alveolitis in the tobacco industry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240894
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1984 Feb;41(1):77-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1984
Author
M S Huuskonen
K. Husman
J. Järvisalo
O. Korhonen
M. Kotimaa
T. Kuusela
H. Nordman
A. Zitting
R. Mäntyjärvi
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1984 Feb;41(1):77-83
Date
Feb-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Microbiology
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic - etiology
Antibodies - analysis
Dust - adverse effects
Female
Finland
Fungi - immunology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A - metabolism
Plants, Toxic
Pulmonary Fibrosis - etiology
Respiratory Function Tests
Smoking
Tobacco
Abstract
A total of 57 subjects who had been exposed to mould dust in the tobacco industry were studied. Their working environment showed exposure to spores of different moulds, and 29 subjects (51%) showed antibodies against one or more of the microbes. Fifteen (26%) had work related respiratory symptoms. Eight (14%) showed slight radiographic pulmonary fibrosis. Spirometry showed a tendency toward restriction and obstruction, especially in small airways. Diffusion capacity was decreased in 18% of the workers. Three clinical cases of typical allergic alveolitis were also found. All this suggests that exposure of spores of different moulds (especially Aspergillus fumigatus) in the manufacture of tobacco products may induce symptoms and signs relating to extrinsic allergic alveolitis.
Notes
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1969 Jan;99(1):67-725762114
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1978 Dec;4(4):275-83734388
Cites: Clin Chem. 1979 Jul;25(7):1259-62222502
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1980 Aug;37(3):268-727426478
Cites: Allergy. 1980 Sep;35(6):537-427008641
Cites: J Gen Microbiol. 1963 Jan;30:75-8813950271
PubMed ID
6318802 View in PubMed
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42 records – page 1 of 5.