to investigate gender differences in high school students with respect to sexual risk behaviours, and their perceptions of the effect of an educational programme on sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In addition, this study aimed to investigate differences between students in programmes preparing for university compared with vocational programmes. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND DESIGN: second-year high school adolescents from two communities in south-west Sweden were invited to participate in the study, and completed a questionnaire on sexual experience, sexual risk behaviours and the impact of the educational programme on STIs.
males took less responsibility for STI prevention than females. Furthermore, males perceived themselves to be less influenced by the STI education than females. Females had more experience of same-sex sexuality than males.
males take less responsibility for STI prevention than females. When planning STI education, it is important to consider gender, traditions and various learning styles. If STI education fails to reach males, the prevalence of these infections will continue to increase.
To study whether the physician's evaluation of the consultation correlates to patient outcome one month later concerning symptom relief, sick leave, and drug compliance as perceived by the patient. The study also investigated whether the patient's evaluation of the consultation correlated to patient outcome.
A longitudinal study using questionnaires.
A county in south-western Sweden. Subjects. Forty-six physicians and 316 primary care patients aged 16 years or more with a new complaint lasting one week or more were invited. A total of 289 patients completed a questionnaire presented at the consultation; 273 patients were reached in a follow-up telephone interview one month after the consultation.
The association between each statement in the physician-patient questionnaire (PPQ) from the consultation and the answers obtained from the telephone interview were analysed by either multiple linear or logistic regression analysis.
Five out of 10 items in the PPQ were significantly associated with patient outcome. Physician's self-evaluation of the consultation was much more strongly associated with patient outcome than the patient's evaluation.
The difference between the physician's and patient's evaluation of the consultation to predict patient outcomes indicates that the physician's self-evaluation of the consultation is of importance.
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Adolescence is a time of rapid changes, including risk for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Education may improve understanding and attitudes toward menstruation among adolescents thus increasing their awareness of risks and enabling them to protect themselves accordingly. To investigate effects of education on attitudes, two interventions were compared in 345 12-year-old girls. The new, active intervention given to premenarcheal girls just before menarche resulted in improvements in attitudes toward menstruation compared with standard intervention. Thus, just before menarche girls should be offered education modeled after the active intervention. The education must be concrete and based on multisensory learning.
Talking about risk with patients is problematic since the individual's risk is not addressed and is usually very low. This study aimed to see how fact presentation influenced the decision-making process for general practitioners concerning treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Rather than looking at the risk of becoming ill, often presented as high figures of relative risk reduction (RRR), it could be useful to present the probability of staying well, i.e. from the concept of non-occurrence probability (NOP) and non-occurrence probability increase (NOPI)--simply a single measure of change in NOP.
General practitioners (GPs) had personal response keypads to answer two questions, presented differently, concerning whether they would allow themselves to be treated or not be treated for the risk of cardiovascular death.
Five audiences consisting of general practitioners attending lectures.
When the question was presented as RRR, 68% and 86%, respectively, of the physicians responded that they would take the decision to treat. When presented as the concept of NOPI the figures were reduced to 18% and 16%, respectively (p
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Cites: Scand J Prim Health Care. 2003 Sep;21(3):162-614531508
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OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the prevalence of potential pathogenic bacteria in nasopharyngeal samples from healthy individuals, and the influence on the carrier rate of age, season of the year, and type of child day care. DESIGN: Nasopharyngeal swab samples obtained in routine medical care from individuals with no sign of infection were studied in 159 pre-school children aged below 7 years, 198 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years, and 261 adults (.16 years). RESULTS: The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in healthy individuals decreased with age. The overall isolation frequencies for pre-schoolchildren, schoolchildren, and adults, respectively, were: Moraxella catarrhalis (27%, 4% and 2%); Streptococcus pneumoniae (19%, 6% and 0.8%); Haemophilus influenzae (13%, 6% and 3%). The prevalence of S. pneumoniae in children 7-15 years was higher during the summer than in the winter. We could not confirm any variation in the carrier rate due to the type of child day care. CONCLUSION: Potentially pathogenic bacteria are often present in nasopharyngeal samples taken from healthy pre-school children, but rarely from people > or = 16 years of age. This means that the use of nasopharyngeal samples to discriminate between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infection needs to be evaluated further in patients
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure in patients with pharyngotonsillitis after a traditional course of penicillin V is a common finding. Several factors have been proposed to explain the failure rate, but the presence of aetiological agents other than group A beta-haemolytic streptococci has attracted little attention. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate if a nasopharyngeal sample could suggest the aetiology of a sore throat in patients with a respiratory tract infection. METHODS: The prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) in nasopharyngeal samples from 618 healthy individuals was compared with that from 108 patients with a respiratory tract infection and a sore throat. RESULTS: The prevalence of H.influenzae was higher in patients with a sore throat than in healthy individuals of the same age. For the adult patients with a sore throat, the prevalence was 27.5% compared with 2.7% for the healthy carriers (P
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of medical students' patient-centred attitudes show a decline across undergraduate education and overall higher scores for female students. AIM: To assess undergraduate students' patient-centred attitudes at various stages of education and to explore possible associations between attitudes and age, gender and work experience in health care. METHODS: In autumn 2005, medical students in Gothenburg (n = 797) were asked to answer Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS), a validated instrument exploring attitudes towards the doctor-patient relationship. Data including gender, age, current term and students' work experience in health care were collected. RESULTS: Of 797 students 600 (75%) answered the questionnaire. No decrease of students' PPOS score across the curriculum was observed. PPOS scores from female students were higher compared to males (p
In randomized trials, no peri-operative survival benefit has been shown for endovascular (EVAR) repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) when compared with open repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary repair strategy on early and midterm survival in a non-selected population based study.
The Swedish Vascular Registry was consulted to identify all rAAA repairs performed in Sweden in the period 2008-12. Centers with a primary EVAR strategy (treating > 50% of rAAA with EVAR) were compared with centers with a primary open repair strategy. Peri-operative outcome, midterm survival, and incidence of rAAA repair/100,000 inhabitants aged > 50 years were assessed.
In total, 1,304 patients were identified. Three primary EVAR centers (pEVARc) operated on 236 patients (74.6% EVAR). Twenty-six primary open repair centers (pORc) operated 1,068 patients (15.6% EVAR). Patients treated at pEVARc were more often referrals (28.0% vs. 5.3%; p