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A 1-year evaluation of Syva MicroTrak Chlamydia enzyme immunoassay with selective confirmation by direct fluorescent-antibody assay in a high-volume laboratory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217461
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Sep;32(9):2208-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
E L Chan
K. Brandt
G B Horsman
Author Affiliation
Laboratory and Disease Control Services, Saskatchewan Health, Regina, Canada.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Sep;32(9):2208-11
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Chlamydia Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Chlamydia trachomatis - immunology - isolation & purification
Cost Control
Densitometry
Diagnostic Tests, Routine - economics
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique - economics
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques - economics
Male
Predictive value of tests
Prevalence
Reagent kits, diagnostic
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Seasons
Sensitivity and specificity
Urethritis - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Uterine Cervicitis - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
TThe Syva MicroTrak Chlamydia enzyme immunoassay (EIA; Syva Company, San Jose, Calif.) with cytospin and direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) confirmation was evaluated on 43,630 urogenital specimens over a 1-year period in the Provincial Laboratory in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. This was a two-phase study intended to define a testing algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis that would be both highly accurate and cost-effective in our high-volume (> 3,000 tests per month) laboratory. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in our population is moderate (8 to 9%). In phase 1, we tested 6,022 male and female urogenital specimens by EIA. All specimens with optical densities above the cutoff value and those within 30% below the cutoff value were retested by DFA. This was 648 specimens (10.8% of the total). A total of 100% (211 of 211) of the specimens with optical densities equal to or greater than 1.00 absorbance unit (AU) above the cutoff value, 98.2% (175 of 178) of the specimens with optical densities of between 0.500 and 0.999 AU above the cutoff value, and 83% (167 of 201) of the specimens with optical densities within 0.499 AU above the cutoff value were confirmed to be positive. A total of 12% (7 of 58) of the specimens with optical densities within 30% below the cutoff value were positive by DFA. In phase 2, we tested 37,608 specimens (32,495 from females; 5,113 from males) by EIA. Only those specimens with optical densities of between 0.499 AU above and 30% below the cutoff value required confirmation on the basis of data from phase 1 of the study. This was 4.5% of all specimens tested. This decrease in the proportion of specimens requiring confirmation provides a significant cost savings to the laboratory. The testing algorithm gives us a 1-day turnaround time to the final confirmed test results. The MicroTrak EIA performed very well in both phases of the study, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 96.1, 99.1, 90.3, and 99.7%, respectively, in phase 2. We suggest that for laboratories that use EIA for Chlamydia testing, a study such as this one will identify an appropriate optical density range for confirmatory testing for samples from that particular population.
Notes
Cites: Epidemiol Rev. 1983;5:96-1236357824
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Jun;31(6):1646-78315010
Cites: Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992 Nov-Dec;15(8):663-81478048
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Nov;28(11):2473-62254422
PubMed ID
7814548 View in PubMed
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Risk of congenital anomalies in the vicinity of waste landfills in Denmark; an epidemiological study using GIS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58120
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 2005 Sep;13(3):137-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
S Ch Kloppenborg
U K Brandt
G. Gulis
B. Ejstrud
Author Affiliation
University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 2005 Sep;13(3):137-43
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Abnormalities - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Nervous System Malformations - epidemiology
Refuse Disposal
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residence Characteristics
Risk
Abstract
Waste landfills are a potential hazard to health. Public concern exists about this potential hazard and researchers agree that further research is required on this field. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between waste landfill location and congenital anomalies risk in Denmark. The study was a multisided epidemiological geographical comparison study of risk of congenital anomalies combined and congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular and nervous systems with maternal residence in the vicinity of 48 Danish waste landfills compared with those living further away in the years 1997 to 2001. We used routine health and population data in Geographical Information System (GIS) to investigate the risk. The subjects were 2,477 live birth with congenital anomalies. All relative risks in the proximal zones of 0-2 km were set to 1 for comparison. For all anomalies combined relative risk in the middle zones of 2-4 km joint was 0.991 and in the distal zones of 4-6 km joint the relative risk was 1.013. For congenital anomalies of the nervous system, the relative risk in the middle zones was 1.226 and in the distal zones 1.113. For congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system, the relative risk in the middle zones was 0.926 and in the distal zones 0.854. This result was not supported by the aggregated risk ratio mean. We found no association between waste landfill location and congenital anomalies combined or of the nervous system. However, we found small excess risk for congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system. No causal mechanisms are available to explain these findings, but alternative explanations include approximated birth rates and residual confounding. It is our recommendation that more comprehensive multisided studies will be executed to examine the safety of waste landfills.
PubMed ID
16218330 View in PubMed
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Assessment of biochar and zero-valent iron for in-situ remediation of chromated copper arsenate contaminated soil.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298427
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 10; 655:414-422
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-10-2019
Author
Hanna Frick
Stacie Tardif
Ellen Kandeler
Peter E Holm
Kristian K Brandt
Author Affiliation
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark; Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Soil Biology Department, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany; Department of Soil Science, Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, Ackerstrasse 113, 5070 Frick, Switzerland.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 10; 655:414-422
Date
Mar-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arsenates - analysis
Biodegradation, Environmental
Charcoal - chemistry
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Iron - chemistry
Microbiota
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
Chromated copper arsenates (CCA) have been extensively used as wood impregnation agents in Europe and North America. Today, CCA contaminated sites remain abundant and pose environmental risks that need to be properly managed. Using a TRIAD approach that combined chemical, ecotoxicological and ecological assessment of soil quality, we investigated the abilities of biochar and zero-valent iron (ZVI) to remediate CCA contaminated soil in a microcosm experiment. Soil samples from a highly contaminated CCA site (1364, 1662 and 540?µg?g-1 of As, Cu and Cr, respectively) were treated with two different biochars (fine and coarse particle size; 1% w?w-1) and ZVI (5% w?w-1), both as sole and as combined treatments, and incubated for 56?days at 15?°C. In general, bioavailable As (Asbio) and Cu (Cubio) determined by whole-cell bacterial bioreporters corresponded well to water-extractable As and Cu (Aswater and Cuwater). However, in biochar treatments, only Cubio and not Cuwater was significantly reduced. In contrast, under ZVI treatments only Cuwater and not Cubio was reduced, demonstrating the value of complementing analytical with bacterial bioreporter measurements to infer bioavailability of elements to soil microorganisms. The combined fine particle size biochar and ZVI treatment effectively reduced water extractable concentrations of Cr, Cu, and As on site by 45%, 45% and 43% respectively, and led to the highest ecological recovery of the soil bacterial community, as measured using the [3H]leucine incorporation technique. We conclude that the combined application of biochar and ZVI as soil amendments holds promise for in-situ stabilization of CCA contaminated sites.
PubMed ID
30472643 View in PubMed
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