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Age and gender specific serum lipid and apolipoprotein fractiles of Finnish children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217631
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1994 Aug;83(8):838-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
K V Porkka
J S Viikari
T. Rönnemaa
J. Marniemi
H K Akerblom
Author Affiliation
Third Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1994 Aug;83(8):838-48
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Apolipoproteins - blood
Child
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Coronary Disease - blood
Female
Finland
Humans
Lipids - blood
Male
Puberty
Reference Values
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
We present fractile data on serum lipids and apolipoproteins A-l and B for children and young adults from the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study cohort of 1986. The sample comprised 2370 fasting children and young adults (1114 males and 1256 females) aged 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 years. The determinations were performed in duplicate with standard methods. LDL-cholesterol values were calculated. The limits for clearly pathological values (exceeding the 97.5th percentile) irrespective of age and gender were 7.5 mmol/l, 5.0 mmol/l, 3.5 mmol/l and 1.4 g/l for serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, respectively. Corresponding values (below the 2.5th percentile) for HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-l, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol were 0.80 mmol/l, 1.0 mg/l, 0.20 mmol/l and 0.70 mmol/l, respectively. Approximately 79%, 33% and 7% of males had serum total cholesterol values greater than 4.0 mmol, 5.0 mmol/l and 6.0 mmol/l, respectively. Corresponding percentages for females were 87%, 43% and 10%. However, age-related differences were marked. The prevalence of values, e.g. greater than 6 mmol/l according to age, ranged from 6 to 13% in females and from 3 to 12% in males, emphasizing the need for age-specific reference values. Additionally, postpubertal values for total and LDL-cholesterol tended to be slightly lower compared to prepubertal values, indicating that the reference values for adults do not apply to adolescents and young adults. The age-related changes in lipid levels were evident in each fractile and were especially accentuated in higher fractiles. Fluctuations with age were more pronounced in males than in females. These results are intended to be applied as reference values for diagnosing dyslipidemias.
PubMed ID
7981561 View in PubMed
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Associations between diet and the hyperapobetalipoproteinemia phenotype expression in children and young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208599
Source
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 May;17(5):820-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
I O Nuotio
O T Raitakari
K V Porkka
L. Räsänen
T. Moilanen
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Finland. ilpo.nuotio@ktl.fi
Source
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 May;17(5):820-5
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Child
Cholesterol Esters - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Diet
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Finland
Humans
Hyperlipoproteinemias - blood
Male
Phenotype
Sex Characteristics
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
The effect of diet on blood lipids has been under intensive study during recent decades. However, diet in the context of the hyperapobetalipoproteinemia (hyperapoB) phenotype has received less attention. The hyperapoB phenotype is commonly encountered in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is defined as a combination of an increased concentration of apolipoprotein B (apo B), a normal concentration of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and as a result, a low LDL-C/apo B ratio. We studied the associations between diet and blood lipids in a cohort of 534 children and young adults 9 to 24 years old. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats (P/S ratio) correlated (r=-0.19, P
PubMed ID
9157943 View in PubMed
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Associations between physical activity and risk factors for coronary heart disease: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207837
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Aug;29(8):1055-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
O T Raitakari
S. Taimela
K V Porkka
R. Telama
I. Välimäki
H K Akerblom
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Turku, Finland. olli.raitakari@utu.fi
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997 Aug;29(8):1055-61
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Apolipoproteins - blood
Blood pressure
Body Composition
Child
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - physiopathology - prevention & control
Female
Finland
Humans
Insulin - blood
Life Style
Lipids - blood
Male
Obesity - physiopathology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
Risk factors such as high serum cholesterol concentration measured in young adulthood predict premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in the middle-aged. The objective of this study was to analyze the associations between physical activity and CHD risk factors--body composition, blood pressure, serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and insulin--in children and young adults. The design was a cross-sectional study of atherosclerosis precursors in children and young adults using a cohort of children and young adults (N = 2,358) aged 9 to 24 years to determine indices of physical activity, measurements of anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, serum lipids, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and insulin. The results show that a high level of physical activity was associated with high serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C concentrations, and low levels of serum triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B and insulin in males. However, in females, the influence of physical activity was evident only on TG level. In both genders, physical activity was inversely associated with obesity. In all these associations, a significant dose-related relationship was observed. We found no association between physical activity and blood pressure. In conclusion, physical activity is associated with a favorable serum lipid profile already during childhood and early adulthood in a dose-related manner, particularly in males. The promotion of physical activity is important in childhood in preventing obesity and premature cardiovascular disease.
PubMed ID
9268963 View in PubMed
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Associations of education with cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200910
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug;28(4):667-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1999
Author
M. Leino
O T Raitakari
K V Porkka
S. Taimela
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Cardiorespiratory Research Unit, University of Turku, Finland. marketta.leino@utu.fi
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug;28(4):667-75
Date
Aug-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Lipoproteins, LDL - blood
Male
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Urban Population
Abstract
Low educational level is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between education and common cardiovascular risk factors in young adults.
Trends in conventional risk factors of young adults aged 21, 24, 27 and 30 years in 1992 (n = 443) were examined across the educational groups as part of a 12-year follow-up study, the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Education was determined as participants' own educational level and as parental years of schooling.
In males, subject's own education was related inversely and independently of parental school years to serum total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, smoking and body mass index. In females, participant's own educational level associated inversely with smoking and physical inactivity. Parental school years was associated inversely and independently of one's own educational level with serum total and LDL cholesterol values and waist-hip ratio in females. In both genders, parental education was a stronger determinant of diet (butter use) than one's own educational level.
The least educated young adults have adopted a more adverse lifestyle than the more educated. The risk factor profile in young adulthood, especially in females, is still affected by parental education. The influences of one's own and parental educational level on vascular risk profile should be taken into consideration when planning public health campaigns among young adults.
PubMed ID
10480694 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk factors of young adults in relation to parental socioeconomic status: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198873
Source
Ann Med. 2000 Mar;32(2):142-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
M. Leino
O T Raitakari
K V Porkka
H Y Helenius
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Cardiorespiratory Research Unit, University of Turku, Finland. marketta.leino@utu.fi
Source
Ann Med. 2000 Mar;32(2):142-51
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Anthropometry
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Odds Ratio
Parents
Population Surveillance
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Social Class
Abstract
The socioeconomic status (SES) of the family influences the cardiovascular risk status of children and adolescents; however, it is not as well known whether parental SES has any effect on the risk factor profile of young adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations of different aspects of parental SES, namely occupation, education, income and living area, to the common cardiovascular risk factors of their offspring (n = 919) aged 18, 21 and 24 years as a part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 1986. Subjects from farming families and rural areas had the highest serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values, and the lowest diastolic blood pressure compared with subjects from other occupational groups and subjects from urban regions. The diet of young adults from farming families and from rural areas contained more saturated fatty acids and less monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the body mass index was lower in subjects from urban regions compared with rural regions, and physical inactivity was less common in the urban group. Subjects with the highest parental occupational status smoked less compared with those with the lowest status. Parental education related inversely to physical inactivity and directly to dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. The income level of the family associated positively with frequent inebriation by alcoholic beverages and inversely with the percentage of dietary energy from fat. In conclusion, there were modest inverse associations between different indicators of the SES of parents and some of the traditional risk factors of their offspring in young adulthood, which may contribute to the future risk of cardiovascular diseases.
PubMed ID
10766406 View in PubMed
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Clustering and six year cluster-tracking of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure in children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217283
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1994 Oct;47(10):1085-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1994
Author
O T Raitakari
K V Porkka
L. Räsänen
T. Rönnemaa
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Cardiorespiratory Research Unit, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1994 Oct;47(10):1085-93
Date
Oct-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood pressure
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cluster analysis
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Exercise
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - complications
Male
Risk factors
Abstract
Clustering and tracking of serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and diastolic blood pressure were studied in children and young adults. "High-risk" individuals were defined as those having these risk factors at the age and sex specific upper tertile (lowest tertile for HDL-C). Among older boys risk factors occurred at adverse levels more often than expected by chance. Cluster-tracking was assessed as the probability of remaining in the extreme tertiles during follow-up. Approximately 25% of subjects initially at "risk" remained there for 6 years. Subjects who became high-risk individuals during the follow-up expressed greater increase in obesity indices, started to consume more saturated fat and cholesterol and became physically active less often compared to those subjects who were initially at risk, but no longer at the follow-up.
PubMed ID
7722541 View in PubMed
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Clustering of risk factors for coronary heart disease in children and adolescents. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217459
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1994 Sep;83(9):935-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
O T Raitakari
K V Porkka
J S Viikari
T. Rönnemaa
H K Akerblom
Author Affiliation
Cardiorespiratory Research Unit, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 1994 Sep;83(9):935-40
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol - blood
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Cluster analysis
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - blood - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Skinfold thickness
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
Clustering of selected coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors was studied in a cohort of 3457 children and adolescents, aged 3-18 years. Subjects were defined as "high-risk" individuals if their values for serum LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and obesity index (sum of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds) exceeded the age- and gender-specific 75th percentile of the present study cohort. Clustering was studied by using the observed/expected ratio (O/E ratio). Statistically significant clustering was observed as 3.1% of all subjects belonged to the high-risk group (O/E ratio = 2.0, p
PubMed ID
7819690 View in PubMed
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Effect of leisure-time physical activity change on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adolescents and young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211753
Source
Ann Med. 1996 Jun;28(3):259-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1996
Author
O T Raitakari
S. Taimela
K V Porkka
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Ann Med. 1996 Jun;28(3):259-63
Date
Jun-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Cardiovascular Diseases - prevention & control
Cohort Studies
Exercise
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Humans
Lipoproteins, HDL - blood - metabolism
Male
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
In adults, the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is higher among physically active subjects. However, the association of physical activity and HDL-C is less well studied in adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, it is not known whether the effect of physical activity on HDL-C levels is independent, or whether it is mediated by other physiological changes seen in exercise, such as weight loss or increased insulin sensitivity. In order to study the effects of leisure-time physical activity on the levels of serum HDL-C concentration, we analysed longitudinal data from a follow-up study of adolescents and young adults. The study subjects were participants of a large multicentre study of cardiovascular risk factors, aged 15-21 years at the beginning of the study (n = 714). HDL-C was measured from the serum supernatant after precipitation with dextran sulphate and MgCl2. A physical activity index was calculated on the basis of frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time activity assessed by a questionnaire. In males, an increase in the physical activity level predicted an increase in HDL-C concentration, and this association persisted after simultaneously controlling for changes in body mass index (kg/m2), subscapular skinfold thickness, serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations, and smoking. For example, an increase in the physical activity level corresponding to approximately 1 hour of intensive exercise weekly lead to an increase of 42 mumol/L in HDL-C as calculated from the regression equation. In conclusion, physical activity seems to have a direct effect on HDL-C levels among young male subjects within the usual range of physical activity levels.
PubMed ID
8811170 View in PubMed
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The effect of physical activity on serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations varies with apolipoprotein E phenotype in male children and young adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211627
Source
Metabolism. 1996 Jul;45(7):797-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1996
Author
S. Taimela
T. Lehtimäki
K V Porkka
L. Räsänen
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Helsinki Research Institute for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Metabolism. 1996 Jul;45(7):797-803
Date
Jul-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Apolipoproteins E - blood - genetics
Arteriosclerosis - blood - etiology - prevention & control
Cardiovascular diseases - blood - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Cholesterol - blood
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Cohort Studies
Diet
Exercise - physiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Phenotype
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
Apolipoprotein E (apo E) determines serum total (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) cholesterol concentrations and is thus associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. We studied if the effect of physical activity (PA) on serum TC and LDL-C concentrations varies with apo E phenotype in a population-based sample of children and young adults with regular PA. The study cohort consisted of subjects aged 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 years in 1986 (N = 1,498) participating in a large multicenter study of cardiovascular risk factors in children and young adults. Serum lipid concentrations were determined enzymatically, and apo E phenotypes by isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting. The composition of the diet was determined by a 48-hour recall method, and a PA index was calculated on the basis of frequency, intensity, and duration of activity assessed by a questionnaire. LDL-C (P = .0082), TC (P = .014), and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/TC ratio (P = .0004) responses to exercise varied with apo E phenotype. The effect of PA on LDL-C, TC, or HDL/TC was not found in apo E phenotype E4/4. A moderate inverse effect of PA on TC and LDL-C and a positive effect on HDL/TC was found in subjects with E4/3 and E3/3 phenotypes. Similar but stronger associations were found between these variables within the group of E3/2 males. The effect of PA on serum lipid levels was strongest within the phenotype E3/2. These associations were not explained by dietary habits. Apo E phenotype partly determines the effect of PA on serum TC and LDL-C in Finnish male children and young adults with regular PA.
PubMed ID
8692011 View in PubMed
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Effects of persistent physical activity and inactivity on coronary risk factors in children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217610
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 1;140(3):195-205
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-1994
Author
O T Raitakari
K V Porkka
S. Taimela
R. Telama
L. Räsänen
J S Viikari
Author Affiliation
Cardiorespiratory Research Unit, University of Turku, Finland.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Aug 1;140(3):195-205
Date
Aug-1-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Exercise - physiology
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Insulin - blood
Lipids - blood
Male
Obesity
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Smoking
Abstract
The tracking of physical activity and its influence on selected coronary heart disease risk factors were studied in a 6-year (original survey in 1980, with follow-ups in 1983 and 1986) study of Finnish adolescents and young adults as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects in this analysis were aged 12, 15, and 18 years at baseline. Physical activity was assessed with a standardized questionnaire, and a sum index was derived from the product of intensity, frequency, and duration of leisure time physical activity. Complete data on physical activity index from each study year were available on 961 participants. Significant tracking of physical activity was observed with 3-year correlations of the index ranging from 0.35 to 0.54 in boys and from 0.33 to 0.39 in girls. Tracking was better in older age groups. Two groups of adolescents (active and sedentary groups) were formed at baseline according to high and low values of the index, respectively. Approximately 57% of those classified as inactive remained inactive after a 6-year follow-up. The corresponding value for active subjects was 44% (p
PubMed ID
8030623 View in PubMed
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23 records – page 1 of 3.