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Distribution of viral hepatitis in indigenous populations of North America and the circumpolar Arctic

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature312343
Source
Antiviral Therapy. 2013;18(3 Pt B):467-73.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Carla Osiowy
Brenna C Simons
Julia D Rempel
Source
Antiviral Therapy. 2013;18(3 Pt B):467-73.
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Greenland
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Epidemiology
Blood
Arctic Regions
Female
Hepatitis B
Surface Antigens
Chronic
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis D
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
North America
Abstract
The burden of viral hepatitis among indigenous populations of the United States, Canada and Greenland is greater than in non-indigenous populations. In particular, throughout the circumpolar Arctic regions, chronic hepatitis B infection is highly prevalent, although incidence rates have declined considerably in certain regions due to infant HBV vaccination. Unique HBV (sub)genotypes having distinct clinical outcomes and distribution patterns are also observed within this region. In conjunction with hepatitis B infection, hepatitis delta infection is also apparent within North American indigenous peoples, particularly with outbreaks in Greenlandic Inuit communities. Incidence rates for hepatitis C infection are higher for indigenous populations within the United States and Canada; however, some hepatitis C antibody-positive indigenous patients are more likely to be HCV RNA-negative compared to non-indigenous patients. Thus, an increased understanding of the epidemiology, clinical consequences and pathogenicity of viral hepatitis affecting the indigenous populations will help to address and balance the burden of infection.
PubMed ID
23792414 View in PubMed
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Hepatitis C virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal peoples of North America.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116992
Source
Viruses. 2012 Dec;4(12):3912-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Julia D Rempel
Julia Uhanova
Author Affiliation
Section of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, 804D-715 McDermot Ave, Winnipeg, MB, USA. julia.rempel@med.umanitoba.ca
Source
Viruses. 2012 Dec;4(12):3912-31
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Comorbidity
Disease Progression
Hepatitis C - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Indians, North American
Inuits
North America - epidemiology
Population Groups
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, are "broken spirit" diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV infection can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV-related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23342378 View in PubMed
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Peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytotoxic responses to hepatitis B virus genotype 86 and F core antigen expression in human hepatocytes

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284363
Source
Pages 708-710 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):708-710
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Julia D. Rempel
Mark Collister
Michael Carpenter
Carla Osiowy
Gerald Y. Minuk
Author Affiliation
Section of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada
Source
Pages 708-710 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):708-710
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Documents
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The potential influence of KIR cluster profiles on disease patterns of Canadian Aboriginals and other indigenous peoples of the Americas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133185
Source
Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Dec;19(12):1276-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Julia D Rempel
Kim Hawkins
Erin Lande
Peter Nickerson
Author Affiliation
Section of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 804D-715 McDermot Ave., Winnipeg, MB, Canada. jdrempel@cc.umanitoba.ca
Source
Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Dec;19(12):1276-80
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - ethnology
Centromere - genetics
Continental Population Groups - genetics
Disease Resistance - genetics
Female
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Frequency
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Haplotypes
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Receptors, KIR - genetics
Selection, Genetic - immunology
Telomere - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Genetic differences in immune regulators influence disease resistance and susceptibility patterns. There are major health discrepancies in immune-mediated diseases between Caucasians and Canadian Aboriginal people, as well as with other indigenous people of the Americas. Environmental factors offer a limited explanation as Aboriginal people also demonstrate a rare resistance to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are known modulators of viral responses and autoimmune diseases. The possibility that variation in KIR cluster profiles contribute to the health outcomes of Aboriginal people was evaluated with Canadian Caucasian (n=93, population controls) and Aboriginal (n=86) individuals. Relative to Caucasians, the Aboriginal KIR cluster displayed a greater immune activating phenotype associated with genes of the B haplotype situated within the telomeric region. In conjunction, there was a decrease in the genes of the B haplotype from the centromeric region. Caucasian and Aboriginal cohorts further demonstrated distinct genotype and haplotype relationships enforcing the disconnect between the B haplotype centromeric and telomeric regions within the Aboriginal population. Moreover, Caucasian KIR cluster patterns reflected studies of Caucasians globally, as well as Asians. In contrast, the unique pattern of the Canadian Aboriginal cohort mirrored the phenotype of other indigenous peoples of the Americas, but not that of Caucasians or Asians. Taken together, these data suggest that historically indigenous peoples of the Americas were subject to immune selection processes that could be influencing the current disease resistance and susceptibility patterns of their descendents.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21731058 View in PubMed
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Preliminary analysis of immune activation in early onset type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107698
Source
Pages 293-300 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):293-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
adipocytes that secrete adipokines or "fat hormones" such as apidonectin Citation: Int J Circumpdar Health 2013, 72: 211 90 - http://dx.doi.org/10.34021ijch.v72i0.21190 293 Julia D. Rempel et al. and leptin. These adipose-derived hormones influence insulin sensitivity and therefore play a role in
  1 document  
Author
Julia D Rempel
Juliet Packiasamy
Heather J Dean
Jonathon McGavock
Alyssa Janke
Mark Collister
Brandy Wicklow
Elizabeth A C Sellers
Author Affiliation
OOH-QUIN Immunology Laboratory, Section of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, Canada. julia.rempel@med.umanitoba.ca
Source
Pages 293-300 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):293-300
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adiponectin - blood
Adolescent
Age Factors
Body mass index
Case-Control Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - immunology
Female
Humans
Immunity, Cellular
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Interleukin-1beta - blood
Leptin - blood
Male
Toll-Like Receptor 4 - immunology - physiology
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - blood
Abstract
First Nations and other Aboriginal children are disproportionately affected by cardiometabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D, the disruption of insulin signalling can be driven by pro-inflammatory immunity. Pro-inflammatory responses can be fueled by toll-like receptors (TLR) on immune cells such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a white blood cell population). TLR4 can bind to lipids from bacteria and food sources activating PBMC to produce cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-1Ã?. These cytokines can interfere with insulin signalling. Here, we seek to understand how TLR4 activation may be involved in early onset T2D. We hypothesized that immune cells from youth with T2D (n = 8) would be more reactive upon TLR4 stimulation relative to cells from age and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls without T2D (n = 8).
Serum samples were assayed for adipokines (adiponectin and leptin), as well as cytokines. Freshly isolated PBMC were examined for immune reactivity upon culture with TLR4 ligands bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 and 0.2 ng/ml) and the fatty acid palmitate (200 µM). Culture supernatants were evaluated for the amount of TNF-a and IL-1� produced by PBMC.
Youth with T2D displayed lower median serum adiponectin levels compared to controls (395 vs. 904 ng/ml, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984304 View in PubMed
Documents
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