The role of intakes of different sugars in the development of type 2 diabetes was studied in a cohort of 4,304 men and women aged 40-60 y and initially free of diabetes at baseline in 1967-1972. Food consumption data were collected using a dietary history interview covering the habitual diet during the previous year. The intakes of different sugars were calculated and divided in quartiles. During a 12-y follow-up, 177 incidents of type 2 diabetes cases were identified from a nationwide register. Combined intake of fructose and glucose was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes but no significant association was observed for intakes of sucrose, lactose, or maltose. The relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles of combined fructose and glucose intake was 1.87 (95% [CI] = 1.19, 2.93; P = 0.003). The corresponding relative risks between the extreme quartiles of consumption of food items contributing to sugar intakes were 1.69 (95% [CI] = 1.17, 2.43; P
The intake of antioxidants was studied for its ability to predict type 2 diabetes.
A cohort of 2,285 men and 2,019 women 40-69 years of age and free of diabetes at baseline (1967-1972) was studied. Food consumption during the previous year was estimated using a dietary history interview. The intake of vitamin C, four tocopherols, four tocotrienols, and six carotenoids was calculated. During a 23-year follow-up, a total of 164 male and 219 female incident cases occurred.
Vitamin E intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes between the extreme quartiles of the intake was 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.94, P for trend = 0.003). Intakes of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol, and beta-tocotrienol were inversely related to a risk of type 2 diabetes. Among single carotenoids, beta-cryptoxanthin intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.78, P
Major dietary patterns were studied for the ability to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort of 4,304 Finnish men and women aged 40-69 years and free of diabetes at baseline in 1967-1972. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns from dietary data that were collected using a 1-year dietary history interview. A total of 383 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during a 23-year follow-up. Two major dietary patterns were identified. The pattern labeled "prudent" was characterized by higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and the pattern labeled "conservative" was characterized by consumption of butter, potatoes, and whole milk. The relative risks (adjusted for nondietary confounders) between the extreme quartiles of the pattern scores were 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 0.97; p(trend) = 0.03) for the prudent pattern and 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.00; p(trend) = 0.01) for the conservative pattern. Thus, the prudent dietary pattern score was associated with a reduced risk and the conservative pattern score was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. In light of these results, it appears conceivable that the risk of developing type 2 diabetes can be reduced by changing dietary patterns.
It has been suggested that high fish consumption improves mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess whether high fish consumption or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was associated with reduced self-reported psychological distress.
We used three cross-sectional data sets, the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5840), the Fishermen Study on Finnish fishermen and their family members (n = 1282) and the Finntwin16 Study on young adults (n = 4986). Data were based on self-administered questionnaires, interviews, health examinations and blood samples. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item and 21-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQs). Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Relationships were analysed using regression analysis.
Regardless of the measure, fish consumption and omega-3 PUFA dietary intake were not associated with distress in any of the data sets. In contrast to the hypothesis, high serum docosahexaenoic acid was associated with high distress in the Fisherman Study men. Some non-linear associations were detected between serum omega-3 PUFAs or fish consumption (times/month) and distress. In the Fishermen Study, the associations were modified by alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that fish consumption or omega-3 PUFA intake are associated with reduced psychological distress in the general population or in a population with high fish consumption.
Studies of the beneficial role of fish consumption in the prevention of CVD are not consistent in their findings, particularly those studies that focus on the risk of stroke. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the consumption of different types of fish and the subsequent incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVA). We prospectively evaluated the association between consumption of different types of fish and CVA in 3958 men and women aged 40-79 years who were free of heart disease and had participated in a health examination survey from 1967 to 1972. A total of 659 incident cases of CVA occurred during a follow-up until the end of 1994. A dietary history interview method provided data on habitual consumption of fish and other foods over the preceding year at baseline. Total fish intake did not predict CVA, but consumption of salted fish suggested an increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. The relative risk of intracerebral haemorrhage between the highest tertile of salted fish consumption and non-consumers was 1.98 (95 % CI 1.02, 3.84; P for trend = 0.06) after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, smoking, BMI, physical activity, geographic area, occupation, diabetes, use of post-menopausal hormones, serum cholesterol, hypertension, and consumptions of butter, vegetables, fruits and berries. The relationship between fish consumption and stroke risk is not straightforward. How the fish is prepared for consumption may play an important role, affecting the association.
To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic factors related to vegetarians according to different definitions in Finland and to compare the consumption of selected foodstuffs and nutritional intakes among vegetarians and omnivores.
Information about subjects' identification as vegetarians in a survey was used as a basis for self-defined vegetarianism. Foodstuffs consumed and their frequencies of consumption were obtained, and the reported consumption frequencies of meat, fish, milk and eggs or food portions containing these foodstuffs were used as a basis for an operationalized definition of different types of vegetarianism. Reported consumption was used to estimate foodstuff and nutritional intakes.
Three large nationwide surveys in Finland.
In total, 24 393 participants aged between 18 and 79 years were included.
The proportion of self-identified vegetarians was 3.3 % of the total population in Finland. According to responses to questions on consumption frequency, 1.4 % of the population were pesco-lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 0.43 % were vegans, lacto-vegetarians or lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and 0.18 % were vegans or lacto-vegetarians. Eighty per cent of the self-identified vegetarians did not follow a vegetarian diet according to the operationalized definition, but they consumed fewer meat products (P
Studies on the association between plant foods and cerebrovascular diseases have given contradictory results suggesting the existence of some effect-modifying factors. The present study determines whether the consumption of plant foods (i.e. fruits and berries, vegetables, and cereals) predicts a decreased cerebrovascular disease incidence in a population with low fruit and vegetable and high wholegrain intake. This cohort study on 3932 men and women was based on data from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1968-72. The participants were 40-74 years of age and free of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Data on the plant food consumption were derived from a 1-year dietary history interview. During a 24-year follow-up 625 cases of cerebrovascular diseases occurred, leading to either hospitalisation or death. An inverse association was found between fruit consumption and the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. The adjusted relative risks (RR) between the highest and lowest quartiles of intake of any cerebrovascular disease, ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage were 0.75 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), 0.73 (95 % CI 0.54, 1.00) and 0.47 (95 % CI 0.24, 0.92), respectively. These associations were primarily due to the consumption of citrus fruits and occurred only in men. Total consumption of vegetables or cereals was not associated with the cerebrovascular disease incidence. The consumption of cruciferous vegetables, however, predicted a reduced risk of cerebrovascular diseases (RR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.63, 0.99), ischaemic stroke (RR 0.67; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.92) and intracerebral haemorrhage (RR 0.49; 95 % CI 0.25, 0.98). In conclusion, the consumption of fruits, especially citrus, and cruciferous vegetables may protect against cerebrovascular diseases.
Low vitamin D status has been suggested as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although the epidemiologic evidence is scarce, 2 recent studies have suggested an association. The present study investigated the relation of serum vitamin D with type 2 diabetes incidence using pooled data from these 2 cohorts.
Two nested case-control studies, collected by the Finnish Mobile Clinic in 1973-1980, were pooled for analysis. The study populations consisted of men and women aged 40-74 years and free of diabetes at baseline. During a follow-up period of 22 years, 412 incident type 2 diabetes cases occurred, and 986 controls were selected by individual matching. Serum vitamin D (serum 25(OH)D) was determined from frozen samples, stored at baseline. Pooled estimates of the relationship between serum vitamin D concentration and type 2 diabetes incidence were calculated.
Men had higher serum vitamin D concentrations than women and showed a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in their highest vitamin D quartile. The relative odds between the highest and lowest quartiles was 0.28 (95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.81) in men and 1.14 (0.60-2.17) in women after adjustment for smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and education.
The results support the hypothesis that high vitamin D status provides protection against type 2 diabetes. Residual confounding may contribute to this association.
Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) can predict bone strength and fracture risk. Bone fragility has no single cause but results from a complex interplay of several etiologic or contributing factors. Vitamin D is essential for bone health even though it is still unclear how much of this vitamin is required to maintain bone strength and prevent fractures. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] have indicated a high prevalence of inadequate vitamin D status in a number of studies mostly based on selected study populations. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between S-25(OH)D, common risk factors for bone fragility, and QUS variables in a large unselected population sample. The study population consisted of 2736 men and 3299 women from a nationally representative population sample, aged 30 years or over. Information on lifestyle was elicited by means of interviews and questionnaires. Body fat mass was estimated using an impedance-meter. S-25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay. Calcaneal QUS was performed on the Hologic Sahara apparatus recording broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS). The potential determinants of BUA and SOS were analysed using separate multiple linear regression models for men and women. S-25(OH)D proved to be an independent determinant of BUA (P