Previous studies in young and middle-aged men and women have shown that resting electrocardiographic (ECG) variables are influenced by genetic factors. However, the extent to which resting ECG variables are influenced by genetic factors in older women is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences to individual differences in resting ECG variables among older female twins without overt cardiac diseases.
Resting ECG recordings were obtained from 186 monozygotic and 203 dizygotic twin individuals, aged 63-76 years. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to decompose the phenotypic variance in each resting ECG variable into additive genetic, dominance genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental influences.
The results showed that individual differences in the majority of the resting ECG variables were moderately to highly explained by additive genetic influences, ranging from 32% for T axis to 72% for TV(5). The results also suggested dominance genetic influences on QRS duration, TV(1), and Sokolow-Lyon voltage (36%, 53%, and 57%, respectively). Unique environmental influences were important for each resting ECG variable, whereas shared environmental influences were detected only for QT interval and QTc.
In older women without overt cardiac diseases, genetic influences explain a moderate to high proportion of individual differences in the majority of the resting ECG variables. Genetic influences are especially strong for T-wave amplitudes, left ventricular mass, and hypertrophy indices, whereas other variables, including heart rate, intervals, and axes, are more affected by environmental influences.
To evaluate current occupational exposure and its associations with asthma control, exacerbations, and severity in middle-aged men with asthma from youth.
We used the Finnish Defence Force registers, 1986 to 1990, to select conscripts with asthma to represent mild or moderate asthmatic group (asthma group 1; N = 505), men who were exempted from military service to represent relatively severe asthmatic group (asthma group 2; N = 393), and a control group without asthma (N = 1500). A questionnaire was sent out in 2009.
The current self-reported or expert-evaluated exposure to asthma-aggravating factors differed only slightly between the asthmatic groups and the controls. In asthma group 2, being a manual worker or self-employed (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 16.3) significantly associated with asthma exacerbations.
Current work may associate with the asthma outcome of middle-aged men with relatively severe asthma in their youth.
Asthma often begins in childhood or early adulthood and is a common disease among conscripts. The identification of long-term predictive factors for persistent asthma may lead to improved treatment opportunities and better disease control.
Our aim was to study the prognostic factors of the severity of asthma among 40-year-old male conscripts whose asthma began in youth.
We studied 119 conscripts who were referred to the Central Military Hospital during 1987-1990 due to asthma and who attended a follow-up visit approximately 20 years later. Asthma severity was evaluated during military service according to the medical records, and 20 years later during a follow-up visit using Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. We used the results of lung function and allergy tests at baseline as predictors of current persistent asthma.
Compared with baseline, asthma was less severe at follow-up: 11.8% of subjects were in remission, 42.0% had intermittent asthma, 10.9% had mild persistent asthma, and 35.3% had moderate/severe persistent asthma (p