Early access to revascularization procedures is known to be related to a more favorable outcome in myocardial infarction (MI) patients, but access to specialized care varies widely amongst the population. We aim to test if the early gap found in the revascularization rates, according to distance between patients' location and the closest specialized cardiology center (SCC), remains on a long term basis.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec's hospital discharge register (MED-ECHO). The study population includes all patients 25 years and older living in the province of Quebec, who were hospitalized for a MI in 1999 with a follow up time of one year after the index hospitalization. The main variable is revascularization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft). The population is divided in four groups depending how close they are from a SCC ( or = 105 km). Revascularization rates are adjusted for age and sex.
The study population includes 11,802 individuals, 66% are men. The one-year incidence rate of MI is 244 individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. At index hospitalization, a significant gap is found between patients living close ( or = 32 km). During the first year, a gap reduction can be observed but only for patients living at an intermediate distance from the specialized center (64-105 km).
The gap observed in revascularization rates at the index hospitalization for MI is in favour of patients living closer (
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 1999 Nov;15(11):1277-8210579743
Though high discontinuation rates for antipsychotics (APs) by patients with schizophrenia are frequently reported, the percentage of patients receiving pharmaceutical treatment for schizophrenia in routine practice in accordance with international clinical guidelines is unknown. Further, it is unknown if these rates are influenced by levels of neighbourhood deprivation or by a patient's age or sex. Our study aims to investigate if inequalities in AP treatment could be observed between patients living in neighbourhoods with the highest levels of material and social deprivation and those with the lowest deprivation levels, between patients from different age groups, or between men and women.
We conducted a secondary analysis of medical-administrative data of a cohort of adult patients in the province of Quebec with a medical contact for schizophrenia in a 2-year period (2004-2005). We assessed the proportion of patients that filled at least 1 prescription for an AP and received adequate pharmaceutical treatment, defined as being in possession of APs at least 80% of the time as outpatients during a 2-year follow-up period.
Among the 30 544 study patients, 88.5% filled at least 1 prescription for an AP, and 67.5% of the treated patients received adequate treatment. Though no clinically significant differences were observed by deprivation or sex, younger age was associated with lower proportions of patients receiving adequate treatment (46% of treated patients aged between 18 and 29 years, compared with 72% aged between 30 and 64 years, and 77% aged 65 years and over).
In Quebec's routine practice, over 70% of treated patients aged 30 and over received adequate pharmacological treatment, regardless of sex or neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In contrast, in patients aged between 18 and 29 years this percentage was 47%. This is a discouraging finding, especially because optimal treatment in the early phase of disease is reported to result in the best long-term outcomes.
The purpose of this study was to assess adherence to vascular protection drugs in diabetic patients using a cohort of diabetic patients aged >or=30 years, covered by the public drug insurance in the province of Quebec, excluding gestational diabetes and patients who were hopitalized or died during the 1-year follow-up. Drug adherence was measured using the medication possession ratio. Multivariate analyses, including logit and multinomial logit were used. Of the 170,381 diabetics (mean age: 62 +/- 14 years), 18% and 32% were regular users of ASA and ACEIs/ARBs, respectively. Regular use increased with age (p
To examine the association between students' personal characteristics, backgrounds, and medical schools and their intention to enter a family medicine (FM) specialty.
Descriptive study using data from the 2007 National Physician Survey.
Clinical (n=1109) and preclinical (n=829) medical student respondents to the 2007 National Physician Survey.
The main variable was hoping to enter an FM specialty, and 40 independent variables were included in regression and classification-tree models.
Fewer than 1 medical student in 3 (30.2% at the preclinical level and 31.4% at the clinical level) hoped to enter into an FM career. Those who did were more likely to be female, were slightly older, were more frequently married or living with partners, were typically born in Canada, and were more likely to have previous exposure to non-urban environments. The most important predictor for both populations was the debt related to medical studies, which acted in the opposite direction of whether or not students were interested in research. Students interested in research were attracted by specialties with high earning potential, while those not interested in research looked for short residency programs, such as FM, so they could begin to pay off debt sooner. Therefore, the interest in research appears to be inversely related to the choice of FM.
Less than one-third of medical students were looking for residencies in FM in Canada. This is far below the goals of 45% set at the national level and 50% set by some provinces like Quebec. Debt and interest in research have strong influences on the choice of residency by medical students.
Osteoporosis (OP) is a skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone strength and predisposition to increased risk of fracture, with consequent increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is therefore an important public health problem. International and Canadian associations have issued clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of OP. In this study, we identified potential predictors of bone mineral density (BMD) testing and OP treatment, which include place of residence.
Our study was a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec Health Insurance Board. The studied population consisted of all individuals 65 years and older for whom a physician claimed a consultation for a low velocity vertebral, hip, wrist, or humerus fracture in 1999 and 2000. Individuals were considered to have undergone BMD testing if there was a claim for such a procedure within two years following a fracture. They were considered to have received an OP treatment if there was at least one claim to Quebec's health insurance plan (RAMQ) for OP treatment within one year following a fracture. We performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions by gender. Predictors included age, site of fracture, social status, comorbidity index, prior BMD testing, prior OP treatment, long-term glucocorticoid use, and physical distance to BMD device.
The cohort, 77% of which was female, consisted of 25,852 individuals with fragility fractures. BMD testing and OP treatment rates were low and gender dependent (BMD: men 4.6%; women 13.1%; OP treatment: men 9.9%; women 29.7%). There was an obvious regional variation, particularly in BMD testing, ranging from 0 to 16%. Logistic regressions demonstrate that individuals living in long term care facilities received less BMD testing. Patients who had suffered from vertebral fractures, or who had received prior OP treatment or BMD testing, regardless of gender, subsequently received more BMD testing and OP treatments. Furthermore, increasing the distance between a patient's residence and BMD facility precluded likelihood of BMD testing.
BMD testing rate was extremely low but not completely explained by reduced physical access; gender, age, social status, prior BMD testing and OP treatment were all important predictors for future BMD testing and OP treatment.
Cites: Osteoporos Int. 2000;11(7):556-6111069188
Cites: CMAJ. 2000 Oct 3;163(7):819-2211033708
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Cites: CMAJ. 2002 Nov 12;167(10 Suppl):S1-3412427685
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To ascertain the short-term intentions of Canadian clinically active family physicians (CAFPs) to change their practice locations.
Secondary analysis of the 2004 National Physician Survey (NPS) data.
All Canadian CAFPs who responded to the 2004 NPS survey.
Physicians' self-reported intentions to move their practice locations to other provinces or other countries. Variables included age, sex, marital status, having children, professional satisfaction, practice region (British Columbia, Alberta, the Prairies [Saskatchewan and Manitoba], Ontario, Quebec, or the Atlantic Provinces) and work setting (urban, small town, rural, etc). Logistic and regression tree analyses were used to find predictors of intention to move out of province.
The 2004 NPS was completed by 21 296 physicians, 11 041 of whom were family physicians. Of these, 8537 satisfied our study inclusion criteria. A total of 3.6% of those CAFPs planned to relocate their practices to other provinces and 3.0% planned to relocate to other countries within the next 2 years (from the time of the survey). Practising in the Prairies and, to a lesser extent, in the Atlantic Provinces were the most powerful predictors of planned interprovincial migration. Dissatisfaction with professional life was the most powerful predictor of planning migration abroad as well as being a predictor of planned interprovincial migration. Other common and statistically significant predictors of interprovincial migration and migration abroad were age, sex, and marital status.
Patients in the Prairie and Atlantic regions are at greater risk of having their family physicians migrate to other provinces than those in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec are. As interprovincial migration profiles differ according to region of practice, they could be used by provincial health human resource planners to understand and predict the movement of health care workers out of their respective provinces.
Clinical guidelines have been seen as a tool for improving management of osteoporosis in order to prevent fragility fractures. However, the impact of guidelines on clinical management of osteoporosis has not been measured. We examined medical investigation and treatment before and after the 2002 Canadian guidelines publication and examined if practice changes were different between rural and urban areas.
We conducted a retrospective population-based observational study using secondary data analysis. Two studied populations were selected; one before, the other after the publication of Canadian practice guidelines. The studied populations consisted of all individuals 65 years or older from Quebec (Canada) for whom a physician claimed a consultation or have been hospitalized for fragility fracture between the two predefined periods.
There was no significant difference in the rate of bone mineral density testing for women before and after guidelines publication. For men a statistically significant increase was observed but remained very low. A significant increase in bisphosphonates prescribing, but no increased in the reporting of a diagnosis of osteoporosis were observed. A significant reduction of hormonal replacement therapy was seen during the year following guidelines publication. The strongest significant increases were mostly seen in urban regions compared to rural areas.
Very small changes were observed for diagnostic recognition by physicians, diagnostic testing and some recommended drugs prescribing following guidelines publication. This suggests low guidelines impact on medical practice for osteoporosis in patients suffering fragility fractures.
Migration of patients with schizophrenia might influence health care access and utilization. However, the time between diagnosis and migration of these patients has not yet been explored. We studied the first migration between health territories of 6873 patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia in Quebec in 2001, aiming to describe the pattern of migration and assess the influence of the place of residence on migration. Between 2001 and 2007, 34.5% of patients migrated between health territories; those living in metropolitan areas were more likely to migrate than others but tended to remain in metropolitan areas. Migrant patients were also more likely to stay in or migrate to the most socially or materially deprived territories.
Various stakeholders can have differing opinions regarding ethical review when introducing new procedures with patients.
This pilot study examines the way in which Research Ethics Boards (REBs; Institutional Review Boards) and clinical biochemists (CBs; laboratory medicine specialists) differ in their interpretation of what is research and what should be considered common practice versus innovation versus experimentation when introducing new procedures with patients. It also explores whether these groups agree on who is responsible for the ethical review of new procedures.
A validated case scenario for the introduction of a new diagnostic test into clinical practice was sent to CBs and REBs across Canada. Participants were asked to determine whether the scenario constituted research; whether the test procedure should be considered as experimental, innovative, or commonly accepted care; and whether the project required approval by a REB and, if not, who should be responsible for ethical review.
Results showed 81% of 37 CBs and 52% of 27 REBs identified the scenario as research. Responsibility for ethical review was assigned to REBs by 44% of REBs and 54% of CBs. Of all participants, 53% classified the test procedure as 'innovative', 8% as 'experimental', whereas 17% classified it as 'commonly accepted'.
This pilot study indicates a substantial variation in the ethical assessment of innovation in clinical care. This suggests the need to further elaborate on the types of innovation in health care and categorize the nature of the risks associated with each.
To compare mood disorder (MD) prevalence in Quebec in 2006, and compare health services and medication use, mortality and morbidity in patients with MD based on sex and the dwelling sector level of material and social deprivation. The objective was also to identify subgroups of individuals using health services in a larger proportion and having a higher risk of morbidity and mortality.
We conducted a secondary analysis of the Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec medico-administrative data. The cohort is composed of adults diagnosed with MD and living in Quebec in 2006. Variables include: physician consultation, medication demand, consultation for substance or alcohol abuse, emergency visit, hospitalization for a mental disorder, and death. Dwelling sector types are defined by crossing Pampalon material and social deprivation quintiles.
MD prevalence in 2006 was 3.06% (177 850 patients), with prevalence in women 1.7-fold with respect to men. Findings show a higher MD prevalence as well as a higher mortality and morbidity rate in materially and socially deprived dwelling sectors. Young men also represent a specifically vulnerable subgroup for many study variables.
Public policies aimed at improving material conditions (income, education, employment) and breaking out social isolation would have an important impact on the population mental health. Public health program development should pay close attention to young men population.