To examine if chronological age within Canadian youth ice hockey's 2-year age bands influences the proportion of injury.
Retrospective secondary data analyses.
Information on 4736 injured youth ice hockey players (10-15 years old) reported by the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting Prevention Program (CHIRPP) and 4959 (12-15 years old) injured players reported by the Hockey Canada Insurance Database (HCID).
Proportions of injuries according to constituent year (first vs second year of participation within 2-year youth ice hockey age bands).
The influence of age band (Atom, 10/11; Peewee, 12/13; Bantam, 14/15) and level of competitive play on constituent year injury proportions were examined.
Injured Atom and Peewee players (CHIRPP) were more likely to be in constituent year 2 (Atom: odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46-2.03; Peewee: OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.10-1.42). Injured players (HCID) at the highest tiers of competitive play were more likely to be in constituent year 2 (eg, Peewee: OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.92-4.41; Bantam: 1.89; 95% CI, 1.46-2.46).
Constituent year may be a factor in determining injury risk and may be relevant to those managing the risk of injury for youth ice hockey players.
To examine relative age and birth place effects in hockey players drafted to play in the National Hockey League (NHL) between 2000 and 2005 and determine whether these factors influenced when players were chosen in the draft.
1013 North American draftees were evaluated from the official NHL website, which provided birthplace, date of birth and selection order in the draft. Population size was collected from Canadian and American census information. Athletes were divided into four quartiles on the basis of selection date to define age cohorts in hockey. Data between the Canadian and American players were also compared to see if the optimal city sizes differed between the two nations.
Relative age and birthplace effects were found, although the optimal city size found was dissimilar to that found in previous studies. Further, there were inconsistencies between the Canadian and American data.
Contextual factors such as relative age and size of birthplace have a significant effect on likelihood of being selected in the NHL draft.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative age and injury prevalence in Canadian youth ice hockey.
In study 1, youth ice hockey-related injuries (among children 10-15 years of age) collected by the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program between 1995 and 2002 were analyzed. The relative ages of injured children were compared across different age groups and injury characteristics (mechanism of injury and severity of injury). In study 2, injuries reported in the Hockey Canada Insurance Database were analyzed. The relative ages of injured children at different levels of play (ie, representative versus house league teams) were compared.
In study 1, the majority of injured players were of older relative age. However, relative age was not related to mechanism of injury or severity of injury. In study 2, approximately 40% of injured players at the highest level of play were relatively older, whereas only 20% to 25% of house league injured players were relatively older.
Relatively older children within ice hockey age groups are at increased risk of injury compared with their younger peers. Furthermore, the risk of injury for relatively older players is greater at more competitive levels of play. This study proposes that the relative age advantage associated with selection to Canadian youth ice hockey teams is accompanied by an increased risk of injury.
The prevalence of arthritis in aging populations continues to rapidly grow. Research has highlighted 2 principal risk factors for progression of arthritis-related biopsychosocial symptoms: age and physical inactivity. This study examined the relationship between and within physical activity and age on biopsychosocial symptoms of arthritis in adults (age = 30 yr). Hierarchical, multiple-regression analyses were conducted on the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.2, 2009-2010, N = 19,103). Results revealed that more-active adults had significantly fewer symptoms (physical unstd. B = -.23, p = .001; pyschosocial unstd. B = -.51, p = .001). In addition, as age increased, physical symptoms intensified and psychosocial symptoms tapered (physical unstd. B = .24, p = .001; psychosocial unstd. B = -.45, p = .001). Inactive older adults had the highest level of physical symptoms, while inactive younger adults had the highest level of psychosocial symptoms (p = .001). Findings highlight the need to target physical activity interventions to specific age cohorts and particular biopsychosocial symptomologies.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease affecting approximately 8% of the Canadian population. Being physically active may assist in management of the disease and lead to improvements in overall health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether involvement in physical activity (PA) influenced self-reported measures of health in asthmatics. The sample included 4272 asthmatic men and 6971 asthmatic women who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.1. The median age for this group fell in the 40-44 age category. PA level was classified into three categories: active, moderately active, or inactive. In order to determine the relationship between PA levels and the five measures of health (self-perceived health, self-perceived mental health, additional chronic conditions, functional limitations, and satisfaction with life in general) Kruskal-Wallis ANOVAs were conducted and pairwise comparisons were used when significant main effects occurred. For all five measures of health, being physically active increased the likelihood of better health, and greater levels of PA were associated with higher values. In summary, PA was consistently associated with better health in Canadians with asthma. Future research is required to confirm a linear dose-response relationship between PA and health in asthmatics.
Rowe and Kahn (1987) proposed that successful aging is the balance of three components: absence of disease and disease-related disability, high functional capacity, and active engagement with life. This study examines the relationship between physical activity involvement and successful aging in Canadian older adults using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.1 (N = 12,042). Eleven percent of Canadian older adults were aging successfully, 77.6% were moderately successful, and 11.4% were unsuccessful according to Rowe and Kahn's criteria. Results indicate that physically active respondents were more than twice as likely to be rated as aging successfully, even after removing variance associated with demographic covariates. These findings provide valuable information for researchers and practitioners interested in age-specific interventions to improve older individuals' likelihood of aging successfully.
To quantify the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and asthma in Canadian adults and to determine whether age of asthma onset is a moderator of this association.
We used a sample of 74 342 participants with a mean age of 56.4 +/- 12.5 from cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Asthma age of onset was categorized into early-onset (0-20 years) and adult-onset (21-54 years). Three major outcomes were used to estimate the relationship between asthma and CVD, namely: high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.
Multiple logistic regression models revealed that asthmatics were 43% (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.19-1.72) more likely to have heart disease, and 36% (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.21-1.53) more likely to have high blood pressure than non-asthmatics. There were no consistent results for age of onset with high blood pressure, heart disease, or stroke.
Using a population-based dataset we confirmed that asthmatics are at increased odds of cardiovascular disease compared to non-asthmatics; furthermore, age of asthma onset did not appear to moderate this relationship. Future research should focus on determining whether asthma severity or allergic/non-allergic phenotypes have a differential effect on the asthma-CVD relationship.
To determine whether age at asthma diagnosis has an impact on the previously described relationship between asthma and obesity.
Data were provided from Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) of the Canadian Community Health Survey, a nationally representative health survey that included 6871 participants (2464 males and 4407 females) with asthma. Body mass index was used to categorize participants as normal weight (18.5 kg/m2 to 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 to 29.9 kg/m2) or obese (30 kg/m2 or greater). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of overweight and obesity by self-reported age at asthma diagnosis, after accounting for current age and other covariables.
In fully adjusted models, males diagnosed with asthma during adolescence (12 to 20 years of age) were at elevated odds of obesity (OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.43) compared with asthmatic patients diagnosed during childhood (0 to 11 years of age). Women diagnosed with asthma in mid life (21 to 44 years of age) and later life (45 to 64 years of age) were 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.90) and 56% (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.44) more likely to be obese than those diagnosed in childhood, respectively.
The impact of age at asthma diagnosis on the asthma-obesity relationship differed between males and females. However, the identification of high-risk groups of asthmatic patients may strengthen primary prevention strategies for obesity and related comorbidities at multiple levels of influence.
Health care use in patients with asthma is affected by many factors, including sex and ethnicity. The role of physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in this relationship is unknown.
To determine the role of PA and BMI in the health care use of patients with asthma.
A sample of adults with asthma (n=6,835) and without asthma (n=78,051) from cycle 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey was identified. Health care use was self-reported as overnight hospital stays (yes or no), length of overnight hospital stay ( or =4 nights), and physician consultations ( or =3). Self-reported physical activities were used to derive total energy expenditure and to classify participants as active (>3.0 kcal/kg of body weight per day), moderately active (1.5-3.0 kcal/kg of body weight per day), and inactive (