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Behavioural differences between single scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and females with dependent young when experimentally approached by humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271571
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121576
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Veronica Sahlén
Andrés Ordiz
Jon E Swenson
Ole Gunnar Støen
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0121576
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Escape Reaction
Female
Humans
Male
Maternal Behavior
Mothers
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Carnivore-human encounters that result in human injury present a conservation and management challenge and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions such incidents occur. Females with cubs are often involved when humans are injured by brown bears Ursus arctos. In Scandinavia, this is particularly true for unarmed recreational forest users. Our aim was to document behavioural differences between single bears and females with cubs in order to develop recommendations to minimize the risk of injuries to recreational forest users. We documented the reactions of GPS-collared females with cubs and single brown bears to experimental approaches by humans to 50 m from the bear on 42 and 108 occasions, respectively. The majority of females with cubs (95%) and single bears (89%) left when approached. Bears that left were passed at shorter distances and were in more open areas than those that stayed. Both groups had similar flight initiation distances, which were longer for bears that were active at the time of the disturbance. Females with cubs selected more open habitat than single bears, also for the new site they selected following disturbance. Females with cubs, particularly active females with cubs of the year, moved greater distances and spent more time active following the approach. Females with cubs and single bears were seen or heard in 26% and 14% of the approaches, respectively. None of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour during the approaches. Females with cubs selected more open habitat, perhaps predisposing them to encountering people that are not involved in hunting activities, which might be the primary explanation why females with cubs are most frequently involved when unarmed people are injured by bears in Scandinavia. To mitigate injury risks, one must consider factors that bring bears closer to human activity in the first place.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25830333 View in PubMed
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Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) when approached by humans on foot.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126724
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31699
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Gro Kvelprud Moen
Ole-Gunnar Støen
Veronica Sahlén
Jon E Swenson
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31699
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Behavior, Animal - physiology
Female
Foot
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Movement
Scandinavia
Social Behavior
Time Factors
Ursidae - physiology
Walking - physiology
Abstract
Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males) GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80%) left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%). Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m) than passive bears (69±47 m), and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.
Notes
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Cites: Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-6721298447
Cites: Forensic Sci Int. 2007 Nov 15;173(1):64-718401885
PubMed ID
22363710 View in PubMed
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Can hunting data be used to estimate unbiased population parameters? A case study on brown bears.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287553
Source
Biol Lett. 2016 Jun;12(6)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2016
Author
Martin Leclerc
Joanie Van de Walle
Andreas Zedrosser
Jon E Swenson
Fanie Pelletier
Source
Biol Lett. 2016 Jun;12(6)
Date
Jun-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Body Weight
Conservation of Natural Resources
Female
Population Density
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
Quantifying temporal changes in harvested populations is critical for applied and fundamental research. Unbiased data are required to detect true changes in phenotypic distribution or population size. Because of the difficulty of collecting detailed individual data from wild populations, data from hunting records are often used. Hunting records, however, may not represent a random sample of a population. We aimed to detect and quantify potential bias in hunting records. We compared data from a long-term monitoring project with hunting records of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden and investigated temporal trends (1996-2013) in the ratio of yearlings to adult females, yearling mass and adult female mass. Data from hunting records underestimated the decline in yearling and adult female mass over time, most likely owing to the legal protection of family groups from hunting, but reflected changes in the ratio of yearlings to adult females more reliably. Although hunting data can be reliable to approximate population abundance in some circumstances, hunting data can represent a biased sample of a population and should be used with caution in management and conservation decisions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27303052 View in PubMed
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Determinants of lifetime reproduction in female brown bears: early body mass, longevity, and hunting regulations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114603
Source
Ecology. 2013 Jan;94(1):231-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Andreas Zedrosser
Fanie Pelletier
Richard Bischof
Marco Festa-Bianchet
Jon E Swenson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Environmental and Health Studies, Telemark University College, NO-3800 Bø i Telemark, Norway. andreas.zedrosser@hit.no
Source
Ecology. 2013 Jan;94(1):231-40
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Body Weight - physiology
Female
Human Activities
Humans
Longevity - physiology
Population Dynamics
Reproduction - physiology
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
In iteroparous mammals, conditions experienced early in life may have long-lasting effects on lifetime reproductive success. Human-induced mortality is also an important demographic factor in many populations of large mammals and may influence lifetime reproductive success. Here, we explore the effects of early development, population density, and human hunting on survival and lifetime reproductive success in brown bear (Ursus arctos) females, using a 25-year database of individually marked bears in two populations in Sweden. Survival of yearlings to 2 years was not affected by population density or body mass. Yearlings that remained with their mother had higher survival than independent yearlings, partly because regulations prohibit the harvest of bears in family groups. Although mass as a yearling did not affect juvenile survival, it was positively associated with measures of lifetime reproductive success and individual fitness. The majority of adult female brown bear mortality (72%) in our study was due to human causes, mainly hunting, and many females were killed before they reproduced. Therefore, factors allowing females to survive several hunting seasons had a strong positive effect on lifetime reproductive success. We suggest that, in many hunted populations of large mammals, sport harvest is an important influence on both population dynamics and life histories.
PubMed ID
23600257 View in PubMed
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Disentangling direct and indirect determinants of the duration of maternal care in brown bears: Environmental context matters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311787
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2021 02; 90(2):376-386
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2021
Author
Joanie Van de Walle
Andreas Zedrosser
Jon E Swenson
Fanie Pelletier
Author Affiliation
Département de biologie & Centre for Northern Studies, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2021 02; 90(2):376-386
Date
02-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Female
Litter Size
Population Dynamics
Pregnancy
Reproduction
Sweden
Ursidae
Abstract
The duration of maternal care, an important life-history trait affecting population dynamics, varies greatly within species. Yet, our understanding of its predictors is limited, mostly correlative and subject to misinterpretations, due to difficulties to disentangle the role of maternal- and offspring-related characteristics. We conducted path analysis on a dataset including 217 brown bear litters captured over a 29-year period in two populations in Sweden ('North' and 'South') facing contrasting environmental conditions to identify and quantify the causes of variation in the duration of maternal care (1.5 or 2.5 years). We showed that the causal determinants of the duration of maternal care were context-dependent. Contrary to their expected central role in the determination of the duration of maternal care, yearling mass and its direct determinants (i.e. litter size and maternal mass) were only important in the North population, where environmental conditions are harsher and the cost of extended maternal care presumably higher. In the South, the duration of maternal care was not caused by yearling mass nor any maternal or litter characteristics. Extension of maternal care may thus result from factors independent from maternal and offspring condition in the South, such as an artificial hunting-induced selection for longer maternal care through the legal protection of family groups. Our results provide an important contribution to our very limited knowledge of the direct and indirect determinants of the duration of maternal care and highlight the importance of accounting for the environmental context when assessing maternal reproductive tactics.
PubMed ID
33064848 View in PubMed
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Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286176
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2017 Jan;86(1):35-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Jacinthe Gosselin
Martin Leclerc
Andreas Zedrosser
Sam M J G Steyaert
Jon E Swenson
Fanie Pelletier
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2017 Jan;86(1):35-42
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources
Female
Longevity
Male
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991-2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled cub survival before, during and after the mating season. We used three proxies to evaluate spatial and temporal variation in male turnover; distance and timing of the closest male killed and number of males that died around a female's home range centre. Male removal decreased cub survival only during the mating season, as expected in seasonal breeders with SSI. Cub survival increased with distance to the closest male killed within the previous 1·5 years, and it was lower when the closest male killed was removed 1·5 instead of 0·5 year earlier. We did not detect an effect of the number of males killed. Our results support the hypothesis that social restructuring due to hunting can reduce recruitment and suggest that the distribution of the male deaths might be more important than the overall number of males that die. As the removal of individuals through hunting is typically not homogenously distributed across the landscape, spatial heterogeneity in hunting pressure may cause source-sink dynamics, with lower recruitment in areas of high human-induced mortality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27448763 View in PubMed
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Low cardiac output as physiological phenomenon in hibernating, free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) - an observational study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261547
Source
Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2014;12:36
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Peter Godsk Jørgensen
Jon Arnemo
Jon E Swenson
Jan S Jensen
Søren Galatius
Ole Frøbert
Source
Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2014;12:36
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology
Animals
Blood Pressure - physiology
Cardiac Output - physiology
Heart Rate - physiology
Hibernation - physiology
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
Despite 5-7 months of physical inactivity during hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to cope with physiological conditions that would be detrimental to humans. During hibernation, the tissue metabolic demands fall to 25% of the active state. Our objective was to assess cardiac function associated with metabolic depression in the hibernating vs. active states in free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears.
We performed echocardiography on seven free-ranging brown bears in Dalarna, Sweden, anesthetized with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine-ketamine during winter hibernation in February 2013 and with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine during active state in June 2013. We measured cardiac output noninvasively using estimates of hemodynamics obtained by pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography and 2D imaging. Comparisons were made using paired T-tests.
During hibernation, all hemodynamic indices were significantly decreased (hibernating vs. active state): mean heart rate was 26.0 (standard deviation (SD): 5.6) beats per min vs. 75.0 (SD: 17.1) per min (P=0.002), mean stroke volume 32.3 (SD: 5.2) ml vs. 47.1 (SD: 7.9) ml (P=0.008), mean cardiac output 0.86 (SD: 0.31) l/min vs. 3.54 (SD: 1.04) l/min (P=0.003), and mean cardiac index 0.63 (SD: 0.21) l/min/kg vs. 2.45 (SD: 0.52) l/min/ m2 (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
25224464 View in PubMed
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Physiological evidence for a human-induced landscape of fear in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275216
Source
Physiol Behav. 2015 Dec 1;152(Pt A):244-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2015
Author
Ole-Gunnar Støen
Andres Ordiz
Alina L Evans
Timothy G Laske
Jonas Kindberg
Ole Fröbert
Jon E Swenson
Jon M Arnemo
Source
Physiol Behav. 2015 Dec 1;152(Pt A):244-8
Date
Dec-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Fear - physiology - psychology
Female
Forests
Fruit
Heart rate
Humans
Locomotion - physiology
Male
Monitoring, Ambulatory
Seasons
Stress, Psychological - physiopathology
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology - psychology
Abstract
Human persecution is a major cause of mortality for large carnivores. Consequently, large carnivores avoid humans, but may use human-dominated landscapes by being nocturnal and elusive. Behavioral studies indicate that certain ecological systems are "landscapes of fear", driven by antipredator behavior. Because behavior and physiology are closely interrelated, physiological assessments may provide insight into the behavioral response of large carnivores to human activity. To elucidate changes in brown bears' (Ursus arctos) behavior associated with human activity, we evaluated stress as changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in 12 GPS-collared, free-ranging bears, 7 males and 5 females, 3-11 years old, using cardiac-monitoring devices. We applied generalized linear regression models with HR and HRV as response variables and chest activity, time of day, season, distance traveled, and distance to human settlements from GPS positions recorded every 30 min as potential explanatory variables. Bears exhibited lower HRV, an indication of stress, when they were close to human settlements and especially during the berry season, when humans were more often in the forest, picking berries and hunting. Our findings provide evidence of a human-induced landscape of fear in this hunted population of brown bears.
PubMed ID
26476156 View in PubMed
Less detail

Predators or prey? Spatio-temporal discrimination of human-derived risk by brown bears.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101867
Source
Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Andrés Ordiz
Ole-Gunnar Støen
Miguel Delibes
Jon E Swenson
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. andres.ordiz@gmail.com
Source
Oecologia. 2011 May;166(1):59-67
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Circadian Rhythm
Female
Humans
Male
Seasons
Sweden
Ursidae - psychology
Abstract
Prey usually adjust anti-predator behavior to subtle variations in perceived risk. However, it is not clear whether adult large carnivores that are virtually free of natural predation adjust their behavior to subtle variations in human-derived risk, even when living in human-dominated landscapes. As a model, we studied resting-site selection by a large carnivore, the brown bear (Ursus arctos), under different spatial and temporal levels of human activity. We quantified horizontal and canopy cover at 440 bear beds and 439 random sites at different distances from human settlements, seasons, and times of the day. We hypothesized that beds would be more concealed than random sites and that beds would be more concealed in relation to human-derived risk. Although human densities in Scandinavia are the lowest within bear ranges in Western Europe, we found an effect of human activity; bears chose beds with higher horizontal and canopy cover during the day (0700-1900 hours), especially when resting closer to human settlements, than at night (2200-0600 hours). In summer/fall (the berry season), with more intensive and dispersed human activity, including hunting, bears rested further from human settlements during the day than in spring (pre-berry season). Additionally, day beds in the summer/fall were the most concealed. Large carnivores often avoid humans at a landscape scale, but total avoidance in human-dominated areas is not possible. Apparently, bears adjust their behavior to avoid human encounters, which resembles the way prey avoid their predators. Bears responded to fine-scale variations in human-derived risk, both on a seasonal and a daily basis.
PubMed ID
21298447 View in PubMed
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Regulated hunting re-shapes the life history of brown bears.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292576
Source
Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 Jan; 2(1):116-123
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Richard Bischof
Christophe Bonenfant
Inger Maren Rivrud
Andreas Zedrosser
Andrea Friebe
Tim Coulson
Atle Mysterud
Jon E Swenson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway. richard.bischof@nmbu.no.
Source
Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 Jan; 2(1):116-123
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Conservation of Natural Resources
Female
Life History Traits
Longevity
Male
Population Dynamics
Reproduction
Sweden
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
Management of large carnivores is among the most controversial topics in natural resource administration. Regulated hunting is a centrepiece of many carnivore management programmes and, although a number of hunting effects on population dynamics, body-size distributions and life history in other wildlife have been observed, its effects on life history and demography of large carnivores remain poorly documented. We report results from a 30-year study of brown bears (Ursus arctos) analysed using an integrated hierarchical approach. Our study revealed that regulated hunting has severely disrupted the interplay between age-specific survival and environmental factors, altered the consequences of reproductive strategies, and changed reproductive values and life expectancy in a population of the world's largest terrestrial carnivore. Protection and sustainable management have led to numerical recovery of several populations of large carnivores, but managers and policymakers should be aware of the extent to which regulated hunting may be influencing vital rates, thereby reshaping the life history of apex predators.
PubMed ID
29230025 View in PubMed
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13 records – page 1 of 2.