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An invitation to develop Ontario's cancer research platform: report of the Ontario cancer cohort workshop.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166840
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2006;27(2):94-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Fredrick D Ashbury
Victoria A Kirsh
Nancy Kreiger
Scott T Leatherdale
John R McLaughlin
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2006;27(2):94-7
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomedical research
Cohort Studies
Education
Health promotion
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Neoplasms - prevention & control
Ontario
PubMed ID
17073023 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association of total energy intake and macronutrient consumption with colorectal cancer risk: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125827
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:18
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Zhuoyu Sun
Lin Liu
Peizhong Peter Wang
Barbara Roebothan
Jin Zhao
Elizabeth Dicks
Michelle Cotterchio
Sharon Buehler
Peter T Campbell
John R McLaughlin
Patrick S Parfrey
Author Affiliation
Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St, John's, NL, Canada.
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:18
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Cholesterol - administration & dosage
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Fatty Acids - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada.
Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk.
Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk.
This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22449145 View in PubMed
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Calcium and vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: results from a large population-based case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130129
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):382-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Zhuoyu Sun
Peizhong Peter Wang
Barbara Roebothan
Michelle Cotterchio
Roger Green
Sharon Buehler
Jinhui Zhao
Josh Squires
Jing Zhao
Yun Zhu
Elizabeth Dicks
Peter T Campbell
John R Mclaughlin
Patrick S Parfrey
Author Affiliation
Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Sep-Oct;102(5):382-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Calcium, Dietary - administration & dosage
Case-Control Studies
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Dairy Products
Dietary Supplements
Epidemiologic Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
Previous epidemiological studies have been suggestive but inconclusive in demonstrating inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D, dairy product intakes with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a large population-based comparison of such associations in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON).
A case control study design was used. Colorectal cancer cases were new CRC patients aged 20-74 years. Controls were a sex and age-group matched random sample of the population in each province. 1760 cases and 2481 controls from NL and ON were analyzed. Information on dietary intake and lifestyle was collected using self-administered food frequency and personal history questionnaires.
Controls reported higher mean daily intakes of total calcium and total vitamin D than cases in both provinces. In ON, significant reduced CRC risk was associated with intakes of total calcium (OR of highest vs. lowest quintiles was 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.77, p(trend) = 0.03), total vitamin D (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-1.00), dietary calcium (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.97), dietary vitamin D (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.99), total dairy products and milk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.60-1.00), calcium-containing supplements use (OR = 0.76). In NL, the inverse associations of calcium, vitamin D with CRC risk were most pronounced among calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement users (OR = 0.67, 0.68, respectively).
Results of this study add to the evidence that total calcium, dietary calcium, total vitamin D, dietary vitamin D, calcium- or vitamin D-containing supplement use may reduce the risk of CRC. The inverse associations of CRC risk with intakes of total dairy products and milk may be largely due to calcium and vitamin D.
PubMed ID
22032106 View in PubMed
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A case-control study of long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105923
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):443-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2014
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Michael Jerrett
Darren Brenner
Jason Su
Hong Chen
John R McLaughlin
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):443-51
Date
Feb-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Benzene - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Volatile Organic Compounds - adverse effects
Abstract
Few studies have investigated associations between nonoccupational exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and lung cancer. We conducted a case-control study of 445 incident lung cancers and 948 controls (523 hospital, 425 general population) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. Participants provided information on several risk factors, including tobacco use, secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke, obesity, and family history of cancer. Exposure to benzene, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen dioxide was estimated using land-use regression models. Exposures were linked to residential addresses to estimate exposure at the time of interview, 10 years before interview, and across past residences (time-weighted average). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Analyses involving the population-based controls found that an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average benzene concentration (0.15 µg/m(3)) across previous residences was associated with lung cancer (odds ratio = 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.68). Similarly, an interquartile-range increase in the time-weighted average nitrogen dioxide concentration (4.8 ppb) yielded an odds ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.12). Our study suggests that long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide at relatively low concentrations is associated with lung cancer. Further work is needed to evaluate joint relationships between these pollutants, smoking, and lung cancer.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):455-624287469
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 15;179(4):452-424287471
PubMed ID
24287467 View in PubMed
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A cohort study of dietary fibre intake and menarche.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190146
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Apr;5(2):353-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2002
Author
Malcolm M Koo
Thomas E Rohan
Meera Jain
John R McLaughlin
Paul N Corey
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. m.koo@utoronto.ca
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Apr;5(2):353-60
Date
Apr-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age of Onset
Anthropometry
Body constitution
Cellulose - administration & dosage
Child
Cohort Studies
Diet
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Menarche
Ontario
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
To evaluate the influence of dietary fibre on menarche in a cohort of pre-menarcheal girls.
Prospective cohort study.
Ontario, Canada.
Free-living pre-menarcheal girls (n = 637), 6 to 14 years of age.
Information on dietary intake, physical activity and date of menarche was collected at baseline and was updated annually by self-administered questionnaires for three years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between dietary fibre and menarche, adjusting for age at entry to the study and potential confounders.
A higher intake of energy-adjusted dietary fibre was associated with a lower risk of (i.e. a later age at) menarche (relative hazard 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.94 for highest vs. lowest quartile, P for trend = 0.027). At the fibre component level, a higher intake of energy-adjusted cellulose was associated with a lower risk of menarche (relative hazard 0.45, 95% CI 0.26-0.76, P for trend = 0.009).
The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pre-menarcheal dietary intake can influence menarche.
PubMed ID
12020388 View in PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 17A1 and catechol O-methyltransferase polymorphisms and age at Lynch syndrome colon cancer onset in Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162701
Source
Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 1;13(13):3783-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2007
Author
Peter T Campbell
Laura Edwards
John R McLaughlin
Jane Green
H Banfield Younghusband
Michael O Woods
Author Affiliation
Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Division of Preventive Oncology, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jul 1;13(13):3783-8
Date
Jul-1-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Catechol O-Methyltransferase - genetics
Colonic Neoplasms - genetics
Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis - genetics
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador
Polymorphism, Genetic
Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase - genetics
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Lynch syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome which includes colon cancer. It is caused by inherited defects in DNA mismatch repair genes. Sporadic colon cancers are influenced by exogenous hormones (e.g., postmenopausal hormones); we hypothesized that polymorphisms which influence endogenous hormones would therefore modify age at colon cancer onset among Lynch syndrome mutation carriers.
We genotyped 146 Caucasian Lynch syndrome mutation carriers for a 5'-untranslated region polymorphism in cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17; c.-34T-->C) and an exon 4 polymorphism in catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT; c.472G-->A); 50 mutation carriers had developed colon or rectal cancer at last contact. We used chi(2) tests to assess differences in counts. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard models assessed age at onset of colorectal cancer stratified by CYP17 and COMT genotypes.
Homozygous carriers of the CYP17 C allele were diagnosed with colorectal cancer 18 years earlier than homozygous carriers of the T allele. Hazard ratios identified that, relative to homozygous carriers of the T allele (T/T), carriers of one copy (T/C) and two copies (C/C) of the rare allele were, respectively, at 1.9-fold and 2.9-fold increased the risk of colon cancer at any age. The COMT rare allele suggested a nonstatistically significant trend of decreased colon cancer risk.
This study showed that a polymorphism in CYP17 (c.-34T-->C) modifies age at onset of Lynch syndrome. Because of the high risk of colorectal cancer among this group, knowledge of the CYP17 genotype is warranted for genetic counseling and risk assessment. Future work should assess polymorphisms associated with steroid hormones in Lynch syndrome mutation carriers.
PubMed ID
17606708 View in PubMed
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Dietary N-nitroso compounds and risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106493
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Mar 28;111(6):1109-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-28-2014
Author
Yun Zhu
Peizhon Peter Wang
Jing Zhao
Roger Green
Zhuoyu Sun
Barbara Roebothan
Josh Squires
Sharon Buehler
Elizabeth Dicks
Jinhui Zhao
Michelle Cotterchio
Peter T Campbell
Meera Jain
Patrick S Parfrey
John R Mclaughlin
Author Affiliation
Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL A1B 3V6, Canada.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2014 Mar 28;111(6):1109-17
Date
Mar-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - chemically induced - prevention & control
Adult
Aged
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage
Case-Control Studies
Colorectal Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diet
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage
Dimethylnitrosamine - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Meat
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Nitroso Compounds - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Rectal Neoplasms - chemically induced - prevention & control
Risk factors
Vitamin E - administration & dosage
Abstract
Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case-control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.
PubMed ID
24160559 View in PubMed
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Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265912
Source
Nutr J. 2015;14:8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Zhi Chen
Peizhong Peter Wang
Jennifer Woodrow
Yun Zhu
Barbara Roebothan
John R Mclaughlin
Patrick S Parfrey
Source
Nutr J. 2015;14:8
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology
Diet
Dietary Sucrose
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Meat
Middle Aged
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Plants, Edible
Questionnaires
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
The relationship between major dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) in other populations largely remains consistent across studies. The objective of the present study is to assess if dietary patterns are associated with the risk of CRC in the population of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL).
Data from a population based case-control study in the province of NL were analyzed, including 506 CRC patients (306 men and 200 women) and 673 controls (400 men and 273 women), aged 20-74 years. Dietary habits were assessed by a 169-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between dietary patterns and the CRC risk.
Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87). Even though odds ratios (ORs) were not always statistically significant, largely similar associations across three cancer sites were found: the proximal colon, the distal colon, and the rectum.
The finding that Meat-diet/Sugary-diet patterns increased and Plant-based diet pattern decreased the risk of CRC would guide the promotion of healthy eating for primary prevention of CRC in this population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25592002 View in PubMed
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Ethnic differences in relative risk of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis in North America.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161355
Source
J Urol. 2007 Nov;178(5):1992-7; discussion 1997
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2007
Author
Andrew Mente
R John D'A Honey
John R McLaughlin
Shelley B Bull
Alexander G Logan
Author Affiliation
Prosserman Centre for Health Research, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Urol. 2007 Nov;178(5):1992-7; discussion 1997
Date
Nov-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Calcium Oxalate - urine
Calcium Phosphates - urine
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethnic Groups
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nephrolithiasis - ethnology - urine
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Abstract
Data on susceptibility to kidney stone disease are sparse in individuals of nonEuropean ancestry residing in North America. We determined the relative risk of calcium nephrolithiasis among people of different ethnic backgrounds living in the same geographic region.
Using a cross-sectional design 1,128 consecutive patients with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis 18 to 50 years old were recruited from a population based Kidney Stone Center in Toronto. Age and gender adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression using the 2001 Canada Census population data.
Compared to Europeans the relative risk of calcium nephrolithiasis was significantly higher in individuals of Arabic (OR 3.8, 2.7-5.2), West Indian (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4), West Asian (OR 2.4, 1.7-3.4) and Latin American (OR 1.7, 1.2-2.4) origin, and significantly lower in those of East Asian (OR 0.4, 0.3-0.5) and African (OR 0.7, 0.5-0.9) background. Several ethnic groups had kidney stone risk factors that were significantly different from those of the European group including higher urinary uric acid, urea excretion and estimated protein intake, and lower urinary citrate, potassium, magnesium and phosphate excretion. However, none was consistent with the variation in relative risk of stone disease overall.
The propensity for the development of calcium nephrolithiasis differed markedly among ethnic groups in North America. While environmental factors could not be completely ruled out, this variability may reflect the influence of genetic susceptibility because there was no dominant environmental factor to account for the differences in relative risk of stone disease.
Notes
Comment In: J Urol. 2008 Jul;180(1):413; author reply 41318501930
PubMed ID
17869305 View in PubMed
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