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Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124918
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Publication Type
Article
Author
Leylâ Deger
Céline Plante
Louis Jacques
Sophie Goudreau
Stéphane Perron
John Hicks
Tom Kosatsky
Audrey Smargiassi
Author Affiliation
Direction de santé publique de l' Agence de las sante services sociaux de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Québec.
Source
Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):97-102
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - chemically induced - drug therapy - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Infant
Male
Petroleum Pollution - adverse effects
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children's respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO(2) have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix.
To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO(2) from petroleum refineries located in Montreal's (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby.
The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO(2) exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO(2) exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child's age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home.
The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO(2) levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO(2). The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO(2) [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]).
Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO(2) and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22536578 View in PubMed
Less detail

Development of a health effects-based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159795
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(1):81-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Stephanie Gower
John Hicks
John Shortreed
Lorraine Craig
Stephen McColl
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, Canada.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(1):81-5
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Canada
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Extraction and Processing Industry
Humans
Industrial Waste - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Models, Theoretical
Petroleum
Abstract
In Canada, the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) is currently engaged in a process to determine how best to reduce air emissions from oil refineries. The National Framework for Petroleum Refineries Emissions Reduction (NFPRER) is being developed with the input of stakeholders, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), industry, and regulatory jurisdictions. One component of this framework is the development of a tool to prioritize emissions for reduction based on estimated health impacts. HEIDI II (Health Effects Indicators Decision Index II) is a spreadsheet-based model that prioritizes a series of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic air toxicicants and criteria air contaminants commonly emitted from Canadian oil refineries. A generic meteorological dispersion model was applied to reported annual emissions data for each of Canada's 20 refineries. Photodegradation rates and ambient levels of each substance were accounted for, and air concentrations were calculated for 20 geographic zones around each refinery. These were coupled to toxicity data derived mainly from Health Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and applied to target populations of children, adults and seniors. HEIDI II predicts incidence of relevant disease endpoints from each substance emitted, except for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which were treated as chemical mixtures. Rankings were based on predicted case incidence or the application of a common health impact metric, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), to the predicted incidence. Using the DALY approach, priority rankings can be made within each of the chemical classes, or across all three classes together. HEIDI II incorporates several switches that allow the user to investigate alternate scenarios based on stack height, average daily sunlight hours (for calculating photodegradation), and the possibility of emissions below regulatory reporting thresholds.
PubMed ID
18080898 View in PubMed
Less detail

Risk of asthmatic episodes in children exposed to sulfur dioxide stack emissions from a refinery point source in Montreal, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150980
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Apr;117(4):653-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Audrey Smargiassi
Tom Kosatsky
John Hicks
Céline Plante
Ben Armstrong
Paul J Villeneuve
Sophie Goudreau
Author Affiliation
Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Département de santé environnementale et santé au travail, Montréal, Québec, Canada. asmargia@santepub-mtl.qc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Apr;117(4):653-9
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - pharmacology
Asthma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Extraction and Processing Industry
Humans
Inhalation Exposure
Models, Chemical
Petroleum
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis - pharmacology
Abstract
Little is known about the respiratory effects of short-term exposures to petroleum refinery emissions in young children. This study is an extension of an ecologic study that found an increased rate of hospitalizations for respiratory conditions among children living near petroleum refineries in Montreal (Canada).
We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to assess the risk of asthma episodes in relation to short-term variations in sulfur dioxide levels among children 2-4 years of age living within 0.5-7.5 km of the refinery stacks. Health data used to measure asthma episodes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions from 1996 to 2004. We estimated daily levels of SO2 at the residence of children using a) two fixed-site SO2 monitors located near the refineries and b) the AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model) atmospheric dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios associated with an increase in the interquartile range of daily SO2 mean and peak exposures (31.2 ppb for AERMOD peaks). We adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, and regional/urban background air pollutant levels.
The risks of asthma ED visits and hospitalizations were more pronounced for same-day (lag 0) SO2 peak levels than for mean levels on the same day, or for other lags: the adjusted odds ratios estimated for same-day SO2 peak levels from AERMOD were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.22] and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10-1.82), over the interquartile range, for ED visits and hospital admissions, respectively.
Short-term episodes of increased SO2 exposures from refinery stack emissions were associated with a higher number of asthma episodes in nearby children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19440507 View in PubMed
Less detail

The spectrum of fibroblastic tumors: current insights--Society for Ultrastructural Pathology companion meeting at the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology annual session in Vancouver, March 2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175738
Source
Ultrastruct Pathol. 2004 Sep-Dec;28(5-6):263-4
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article