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An audit of the appropriateness of teletriage nursing advice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180436
Source
Telemed J E Health. 2004;10(1):53-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
John C Hogenbirk
Raymond W Pong
Author Affiliation
Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. jhogenbirk@laurentian.ca
Source
Telemed J E Health. 2004;10(1):53-60
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Counseling - standards
Emergencies - classification
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nurse practitioners
Nurse-Patient Relations
Nursing Assessment - standards
Nursing Audit
Ontario
Physicians, Family
Pilot Projects
Referral and Consultation
Remote Consultation - standards
Self Care
Triage - standards
Abstract
This study assessed the appropriateness of advice given by teletriage nurses to patients in northern Ontario. Assessments used audiotapes and printed records of 73 calls, selected from approximately 350 calls based on sound quality, completeness, and consent of caller and teletriage nurse. Audits were conducted independently by one family physician, one nurse practitioner, and one registered nurse with teletriage experience. In 56% of the 73 calls, all three auditors judged the nurse's advice as "appropriate." In 92% of the 73 calls, at least two of the three auditors judged the teletriage nurse's advice as "appropriate." All calls were rated as "appropriate" by at least one auditor. If not "appropriate," then auditors were three times more likely to rate the advice as "overly-cautious" rather than "insufficient." The percentage of calls with the same rating varied from 62% to 86% with an outlier of 33%. Nurse practitioners tended to rate the appropriateness of the advice slightly, but significantly lower than the rating given by family physicians or registered nurses. Interestingly, nurse practitioners tended to rate aspects of the nurse-caller interaction advice as slightly and significantly better than the rating chosen by family physicians or registered nurses. The teletriage service was providing appropriate advice, but the generalizability of these results may be limited because of the selection of calls.
PubMed ID
15104916 View in PubMed
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Clinical Telemedicine Utilization in Ontario over the Ontario Telemedicine Network.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267693
Source
Telemed J E Health. 2015 Nov 6;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-6-2015
Author
Laurel D O'Gorman
John C Hogenbirk
Wayne Warry
Source
Telemed J E Health. 2015 Nov 6;
Date
Nov-6-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Northern Ontario is a region in Canada with approximately 775,000 people in communities scattered across 803,000?km(2). The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) facilitates access to medical care in areas that are often underserved. We assessed how OTN utilization differed throughout the province.
We used OTN medical service utilization data collected through the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and provided by the Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Using census subdivisions grouped by Northern and Southern Ontario as well as urban and rural areas, we calculated utilization rates per fiscal year and total from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. We also used billing codes to calculate utilization by therapeutic area of care.
There were 652,337 OTN patient visits in Ontario from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Median annual utilization rates per 1,000 people were higher in northern areas (rural, 52.0; urban, 32.1) than in southern areas (rural, 6.1; urban, 3.1). The majority of usage in Ontario was in mental health and addictions (61.8%). Utilization in other areas of care such as surgery, oncology, and internal medicine was highest in the rural north, whereas primary care use was highest in the urban south.
Utilization was higher and therapeutic areas of care were more diverse in rural Northern Ontario than in other parts of the province. Utilization was also higher in urban Northern Ontario than in Southern Ontario. This suggests that telemedicine is being used to improve access to medical care services, especially in sparsely populated regions of the province.
PubMed ID
26544163 View in PubMed
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Driving Distance to Telemedicine Units in Northern Ontario as a Measure of Potential Access to Healthcare.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266988
Source
Telemed J E Health. 2015 Oct 9;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-9-2015
Author
Laurel D O'Gorman
John C Hogenbirk
Source
Telemed J E Health. 2015 Oct 9;
Date
Oct-9-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) uses technology to help make medical services more accessible to people in medically underserved rural and remote parts of Ontario, Canada. We examined access to OTN-enabled health and medical services in Northern Ontario, which has 775,000 people in communities scattered across an area of 803,000?km(2).
We used ArcGIS Network Analyst (Esri, Redlands, CA) to conduct a service area analysis with travel time as a measure of potential access to care. We used road distance and speed limits to estimate travel time between Northern Ontario communities and the nearest OTN unit.
In 2014 there were 2,331 OTN units, of which 552 (24%) were located in Northern Ontario. All seven communities in Northern Ontario with a population of 10,000 or greater had OTN units. Almost 97% of the 59 communities with 1,000-10,000 people were within 30?min of an OTN unit. The percentage of communities within 30?min steadily decreased with decreasing population size, to 58% for communities with fewer than 50 people. In total, 86% (690/802) of Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit.
This study showed that most Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. The current distribution of OTN units has the potential to increase access to medical services and to reduce the need for medically related travel for residents of these communities.
PubMed ID
26451902 View in PubMed
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The economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine to communities participating in distributed medical education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259780
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2015;20(1):25-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
John C Hogenbirk
David R Robinson
Mary Ellen Hill
Raymond W Pong
Bruce Minore
Ken Adams
Roger P Strasser
Joe Lipinski
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2015;20(1):25-32
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The economic contribution of medical schools to major urban centres can be substantial, but there is little information on the contribution to the economy of participating communities made by schools that provide education and training away from major cities and academic health science centres. We sought to assess the economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) to northern Ontario communities participating in NOSM's distributed medical education programs.
We developed a local economic model and used actual expenditures from 2007/08 to assess the economic contribution of NOSM to communities in northern Ontario. We also estimated the economic contribution of medical students or residents participating in different programs in communities away from the university campuses. To explore broader economic effects, we conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in education, health care and politics in northern Ontario.
The total economic contribution to northern Ontario was $67.1 million based on $36.3 million in spending by NOSM and $1.0 million spent by students. Economic contributions were greatest in the university campus cities of Thunder Bay ($26.7 million) and Sudbury ($30.4 million), and $0.8-$1.2 million accrued to the next 3 largest population centres. Communities might realize an economic contribution of $7300-$103 900 per pair of medical learners per placement. Several of the 59 interviewees remarked that the dollar amount could be small to moderate but had broader economic implications.
Distributed medical education at the NOSM resulted in a substantial economic contribution to participating communities.
PubMed ID
25611911 View in PubMed
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How underserviced rural communities approach physician recruitment: changes following the opening of a socially accountable medical school in northern Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285801
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2017;22(4):139-147
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Oxana Mian
John C Hogenbirk
Wayne Warry
Roger P Strasser
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2017;22(4):139-147
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) opened in 2005 with a social accountability mandate to address a long history of physician shortages in northern Ontario. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand the school's effect on recruitment of family physicians into medically underserviced rural communities of northern Ontario.
We conducted a multiple case study of 8 small rural communities in northern Ontario that were considered medically underserviced by the provincial ministry of health and had successfully recruited NOSM-trained physicians. We interviewed 10 people responsible for physician recruitment in these communities. Interview transcripts were analyzed by means of an inductive and iterative thematic method.
All 8 communities were NOSM medical education sites with populations of 1600-16 000. Positive changes, linked to collaboration with NOSM, included achieving a full complement of physicians in 5 communities with previous chronic shortages of 30%-50% of the physician supply, substantial reduction in recruitment expenditures, decreased reliance on locums and a shift from crisis management to long-term planning in recruitment activities. The magnitude of positive changes varied across communities, with individual leadership and communities' active engagement being key factors in successful physician recruitment.
Locating medical education sites in underserviced rural communities in northern Ontario and engaging these communities in training rural physicians showed great potential to improve the ability of small rural communities to recruit family physicians and alleviate physician shortages in the region.
PubMed ID
28925913 View in PubMed
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How underserviced rural communities approach physician recruitment: changes following the opening of a socially accountable medical school in northern Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292102
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2017; 22(4):139-147
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Oxana Mian
John C Hogenbirk
Wayne Warry
Roger P Strasser
Author Affiliation
Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ont.
Source
Can J Rural Med. 2017; 22(4):139-147
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Humans
Medically underserved area
Ontario
Personnel Selection - methods
Physicians - supply & distribution
Qualitative Research
Rural Population
Schools, Medical
Social Responsibility
Abstract
The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) opened in 2005 with a social accountability mandate to address a long history of physician shortages in northern Ontario. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand the school's effect on recruitment of family physicians into medically underserviced rural communities of northern Ontario.
We conducted a multiple case study of 8 small rural communities in northern Ontario that were considered medically underserviced by the provincial ministry of health and had successfully recruited NOSM-trained physicians. We interviewed 10 people responsible for physician recruitment in these communities. Interview transcripts were analyzed by means of an inductive and iterative thematic method.
All 8 communities were NOSM medical education sites with populations of 1600-16 000. Positive changes, linked to collaboration with NOSM, included achieving a full complement of physicians in 5 communities with previous chronic shortages of 30%-50% of the physician supply, substantial reduction in recruitment expenditures, decreased reliance on locums and a shift from crisis management to long-term planning in recruitment activities. The magnitude of positive changes varied across communities, with individual leadership and communities' active engagement being key factors in successful physician recruitment.
Locating medical education sites in underserviced rural communities in northern Ontario and engaging these communities in training rural physicians showed great potential to improve the ability of small rural communities to recruit family physicians and alleviate physician shortages in the region.
L’École de médecine du Nord de l’Ontario (EMNO), qui a ouvert ses portes en 2005, a pour mandat social de combler la pénurie d’effectifs médicaux qui sévit depuis longtemps dans le Nord de l’Ontario. L’objectif de cette étude qualitative était d’étudier l’effet qu’a eu l’école sur le recrutement des médecins de famille dans des communautés rurales mal desservies dans cette région de la province.
Nous avons procédé à une étude de cas multiples auprès de 8 petites communautés rurales du Nord de l’Ontario considérées comme mal desservies par le ministère de la Santé provincial sur le plan des effectifs médicaux et ayant réussi à recruter des médecins formés à l’EMNO. Nous avons interrogé 10 personnes responsables du recrutement des médecins dans ces communautés. La transcription des entrevues a été analysée au moyen d’une méthode thématique inductive et itérative.
La formation médicale de l’EMNO était offerte dans les 8 communautés, dont la population variait de 1600 à 16 000 habitants. Parmi les améliorations reliées à la collaboration avec l’EMNO, mentionnons : le recrutement de médecins dans 5 communautés où sévissaient auparavant des pénuries chroniques de l’ordre de 30 % à 50 %, une réduction substantielle des dépenses liées au recrutement, une diminution interdu recours à des remplaçants et la transition des activités de recrutement pour passer d’une situation de gestion de crise à une situation de planification à long terme. L’ampleur des améliorations a varié selon les communautés; le leadership individuel et la participation active des communautés ont été des facteurs clés de la réussite du recrutement des médecins.
La prestation d’une formation dans de petites communautés rurales mal desservies du Nord de l’Ontario et la mobilisation des communautés visées à l’endroit de la formation des médecins en milieu rural ont révélé leur fort potentiel d’amélioration de la capacité de recruter des médecins de famille et de corriger les pénuries d’effectifs médicaux dans la région.
PubMed ID
28925913 View in PubMed
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Impact of the rural pipeline in medical education: practice locations of recently graduated family physicians in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280331
Source
Hum Resour Health. 2017 Feb 20;15(1):16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-20-2017
Author
Elizabeth F Wenghofer
John C Hogenbirk
Patrick E Timony
Source
Hum Resour Health. 2017 Feb 20;15(1):16
Date
Feb-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The "rural pipeline" suggests that students educated in rural, or other underserviced areas, are more likely to establish practices in such locations. It is upon this concept that the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) was founded. Our analysis answers the following question: Are physicians who were educated at NOSM more likely to practice in rural and northern Ontario compared with physicians who were educated at other Canadian medical schools?
We used data from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. We compared practice locations of certified Ontario family physicians who had graduated from NOSM vs. other Canadian medical schools in 2009 or later. We categorized the physicians according to where they completed their undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) training, either at NOSM or elsewhere. We used logistic regression models to determine if the location of UG and PG training was associated with rural or northern Ontario practice location.
Of the 535 physicians examined, 67 had completed UG and/or PG medical education at NOSM. Over two thirds of physicians with any NOSM education were practicing in northern areas and 25.4% were practicing in rural areas of Ontario compared with those having no NOSM education, with 4.3 and 10.3% in northern and rural areas, respectively. Physicians who graduated from NOSM-UG were more likely to have practices located in rural Ontario (OR?=?2.57; p?=?0.014) whereas NOSM-PG physicians were more likely to have practices in northern Ontario (OR?=?57.88; p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
28219401 View in PubMed
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Milestones on the social accountability journey: Family medicine practice locations of Northern Ontario School of Medicine graduates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274547
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2016 Mar;62(3):e138-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
John C Hogenbirk
Patrick E Timony
Margaret G French
Roger Strasser
Raymond W Pong
Catherine Cervin
Lisa Graves
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2016 Mar;62(3):e138-45
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To assess the effect of different levels of exposure to the Northern Ontario School of Medicine's (NOSM's) distributed medical education programs in northern Ontario on FPs' practice locations.
Cross-sectional design using longitudinal survey and administrative data.
Canada.
All 131 Canadian medical graduates who completed FP training in 2011 to 2013 and who completed their undergraduate (UG) medical degree or postgraduate (PG) residency training or both at NOSM.
Exposure to NOSM's medical education program at the UG (n = 49) or PG (n = 31) level or both (n = 51).
Primary practice location in September of 2014.
Approximately 16% (21 of 129) of FPs were practising in rural northern Ontario, 45% (58 of 129) in urban northern Ontario, and 5% (7 of 129) in rural southern Ontario. Logistic regression found that more rural Canadian background years predicted rural practice in northern Ontario or Ontario, with odds ratios of 1.16 and 1.12, respectively. Northern Canadian background, sex, marital status, and having children did not predict practice location. Completing both UG and PG training at NOSM predicted practising in rural and northern Ontario locations with odds ratios of 4.06 to 48.62.
Approximately 61% (79 of 129) of Canadian medical graduate FPs who complete at least some of their training at NOSM practise in northern Ontario. Slightly more than a quarter (21 of 79) of these FPs practise in rural northern Ontario. The FPs with more years of rural background or those with greater exposure to NOSM's medical education programs had higher odds of practising in rural northern Ontario. This study shows that NOSM is on the road to reaching one of its social accountability milestones.
PubMed ID
27427565 View in PubMed
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Outcomes of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine's distributed medical education programmes: protocol for a longitudinal comparative multicohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264977
Source
BMJ Open. 2015;5(7):e008246
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
John C Hogenbirk
Margaret G French
Patrick E Timony
Roger P Strasser
Dan Hunt
Raymond W Pong
Source
BMJ Open. 2015;5(7):e008246
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) has a social accountability mandate to serve the healthcare needs of the people of Northern Ontario, Canada. A multiyear, multimethod tracking study of medical students and postgraduate residents is being conducted by the Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research (CRaNHR) in conjunction with NOSM starting in 2005 when NOSM first enrolled students. The objective is to understand how NOSM's selection criteria and medical education programmes set in rural and northern communities affect early career decision-making by physicians with respect to their choice of medical discipline, practice location, medical services and procedures, inclusion of medically underserved patient populations and practice structure.
This prospective comparative longitudinal study follows multiple cohorts from entry into medical education programmes at the undergraduate (UG) level (56-64 students per year at NOSM) or postgraduate (PG) level (40-60 residents per year at NOSM, including UGs from other medical schools and 30-40 NOSM UGs who go to other schools for their residency training) and continues at least 5 years into independent practice. The study compares learners who experience NOSM UG and NOSM PG education with those who experience NOSM UG education alone or NOSM PG education alone. Within these groups, the study also compares learners in family medicine with those in other specialties. Data will be analysed using descriptive statistics, ?(2) tests, logistic regression, and hierarchical log-linear models.
Ethical approval was granted by the Research Ethics Boards of Laurentian University (REB #2010-08-03 and #2012-01-09) and Lakehead University (REB #031 11-12 Romeo File #1462056). Results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, presented at one or more scientific conferences, and shared with policymakers and decision-makers and the public through 4-page research summaries and social media such as Twitter (@CRaNHR, @NOSM) or Facebook.
PubMed ID
26216154 View in PubMed
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Postgraduate specialty training in northeastern Ontario and subsequent practice location.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136410
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(2):1603
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
John C Hogenbirk
Oxana Mian
Raymond W Pong
Author Affiliation
Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. jhogenbirk@laurentian.ca
Source
Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(2):1603
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Choice Behavior
Education, Medical, Graduate - organization & administration - trends
Female
Humans
Internship and Residency - organization & administration - trends
Male
Ontario
Professional Practice Location - statistics & numerical data - trends
Rural Health Services - manpower
Specialization
Abstract
Physician specialists are under-represented in communities in northern Ontario, even in larger communities of approximately 100 000 population. The positive association between postgraduate training in northern or rural areas and eventual practice in these locations has been well documented in the literature, but only for family medicine/general practice. Few, if any, studies have explored the association for other specialties. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between northern training and northern practice location for physicians who were enrolled in the Northeastern Ontario Postgraduate Specialty (NOPS) program, which offers placements in northeastern Ontario in specialties such as anesthesiology, internal medicine and surgery. METHODS; A national medical human resources database provided the 31 December 2006 practice location of all 50 participants in the NOPS program since its inception in 2000 until 2006. Program records provided data on participants' specialty rotations in northeastern Ontario, including number, location, and duration of rotations. Non-NOPS participants (n=50) were randomly selected for comparison, matched one for one to the NOPS group on sex, year of birth, language, medical school, year of graduation from medical school, age at the time of graduation, and specialty. Hierarchical log-linear models and 2 tests were used to assess differences between NOPS and non-NOPS participants in geographic location and population size of practice community. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the relationship between the duration of northeastern rotations and practice location of NOPS participants.
NOPS and the matched non-NOPS groups did not differ significantly for age or age at graduation from medical school (paired t-tests, p>0.80) and matched exactly for sex, medical school location and specialty group. Forty-six percent of NOPS participants were female and 80% came from Ontario residency programs. Seventy-two percent of the program participants were enrolled in medical specialties (the remainder were in surgical specialties) and this differed significantly by sex: 83% of females vs 63% of males (? (2)=4.76, df=1, p=0.03). A majority completed residency training at 31-35 years of age. Fifty percent of NOPS participants obtained medical degrees from Ontario universities, 34% from other Canadian universities and 16% from other universities. Significantly more NOPS participants than non-participants were located in northeastern Ontario (9 vs 0), significantly fewer were in other provinces (13 vs 22) and identical numbers were located in southern Ontario (28 vs 28) (=11.61, df=2, p4 weeks) than those located in southern Ontario (? (2)=7.81, df=2, p=0.02). However, a longer northeastern rotation was no guarantee of a northeastern practice location because roughly equal numbers of participants with longer rotations were spread throughout the 3 geographic practice locations. Conversely, a shorter rotation was strongly associated with a southern Ontario practice location (18/25). The NOPS participants located in communities of = 500 000 people were more likely to have shorter rotations than longer rotations, but this difference was only marginally statistically significant ? (2)=5.13, df=2, p=0.08).
The study found that specialists who participated in NOPS postgraduate specialty training in northeastern Ontario were more likely to practice in northeastern Ontario than non-participants. There was also a strong association between the duration of training in the northeast and northeastern practice and avoidance of practice in metropolitan areas. It is not clear yet whether longer northeastern rotations encourage northeastern practice or whether this reflects an existing disposition; it is clear, however, that specialists with longest specialty training rotations in the northeast were more likely to practice in the northeast. The results from this study provide the first empirical evidence of positive association between postgraduate specialty training in the northeast and eventual practice in northeastern Ontario and smaller cities.
PubMed ID
21381861 View in PubMed
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14 records – page 1 of 2.