This study aimed to (1) explore whether quality of life (QOL) is more associated with satisfaction with social participation (SP) than with level of accomplishment in SP and (2) examine respective correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP.
A cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample of 155 older adults (mean age=73.7; 60% women) having various levels of activity limitations. Accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP (dependent variables) were estimated with the social roles items of the assessment of life habits. Potential correlates were human functioning components.
Correlations between QOL and accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP did not differ (P=0.71). However, best correlates of accomplishment level and satisfaction with SP were different. Higher accomplishment level of SP was best explained by younger age, activity level perceived as stable, no recent stressing event, better well-being, higher activity level, and fewer obstacles in "Physical environment and accessibility" (R2=0.79). Greater satisfaction with SP was best explained by activity level perceived as stable, better self-perceived health, better well-being, higher activity level, and more facilitators in "Social support and attitudes" (R2=0.51).
With some exceptions, these best correlates may be positively modified and thus warrant special attention in rehabilitation interventions.
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To investigate occupational therapists', physiotherapists' and speech language pathologists' family-related rehabilitation practice post-stroke and its association with clinician and environmental variables.
A Canadian cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted on 1755 clinicians. Three case studies describing typical patients after stroke receiving acute care, in-patient rehabilitation, or community rehabilitation, and including specific descriptors regarding family stress and concern, were used to elicit information on patient management.
One-third of the sample identified a family-related problem and offered a related intervention, but only 12/1755 clinicians indicated that they would typically use a standardized assessment of family functioning. Working in the community out-patient setting was associated (OR 9.16), whereas working in a rehabilitation in-patient setting was negatively associated (OR 0.58) with being a problem identifier, the reference group being acute care. Being a PT (OR 0.53) or an SLP (OR 0.49) vs an OT was negatively associated with being a problem identifier, whereas being older (OR 1.02 ) or working in Ontario (OR 1.58) was associated with being a problem identifier. To work in a community out-patient setting (OR 2.43), being older clinicians (OR 1.02) or not perceiving their work environment being supportive of an on-going professional learning (OR 1.72) was associated with being an intervention user,whereas being a PT (OR 0.50) was negatively associated with being a user.
For these 3 disciplines, the prevalence of a family-related focus is low post-stroke. Given the increasing evidence regarding the effectiveness of family-related interventions on stroke outcomes, it is imperative that best practice is implemented.
Objectives. The objective of this study was to identify individual and environmental correlates of fear of falling among community-dwelling seniors. Method. The study sample involved 288 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older going through the normal aging process. Fear of falling and a series of individual and environmental characteristics were measured with a questionnaire during home interviews. Results. Multivariate logistic regression procedures showed that the strongest correlates of fear of falling are gender, support from a spouse or partner, and residential area. Being a female as well as living in a smaller city or rural area were shown to be risk factors for fear of falling, whereas the availability of support from a spouse or partner was a protective factor. Discussion. Findings from this study suggest that researchers should adopt an ecological perspective to understanding the phenomenon of fear of falling among seniors and collect data on a broader range of individual and environmental factors.
To field test the applicability of a multidimensional toolkit for geriatric rehabilitation outcomes which includes nine standardized tools. Applicability is defined as context- and population-specific pragmatic qualities of an assessment tool such as respondent and examiner burden, score distribution and format compatibility.
A sample of 48 older adults representing four diagnostic groups, as well as 26 caregivers, were assessed at home in the first month after discharge from intensive rehabilitation (T1) and 2 months later (T2). Pre-determined qualitative and quantitative applicability criteria were coded and compared at T1 and T2, as well as responsiveness.
A higher respondent burden was found for three self-report tools, as well as a ceiling effect on social functioning tools. Respondent burden, examiner burden and score distribution remained stable or diminished at T2. Format compatibility deteriorated only for the mobility test due to a higher proportion of non ambulatory participants (17%). Low to moderate associations between the tools corroborated that they were not redundant (rPearson
To gather and assemble relevant patient-based outcome measures with emphasis placed on the older adults' level of functioning and activity performance.
The study was conducted in two phases. First, a set of relevant measurement instruments was identified, and their was value analyzed according to general characteristics and metrologic criteria. Second, this "toolkit" was pretested on 22 older adults with respect to the burden of assessment and the quality of the data.
The toolkit includes eight measurement instruments related to mobility, basic activities of daily living, independent living, leisure, physical functioning, psychologic functioning, social functioning, and caregiver status. Participants' acceptance of the toolkit was high, with all subjects completing the toolkit in two sessions (30-90 mins each). The leisure participation and satisfaction measure was the most difficult to complete. Distributional properties were adequate to ascertain variability between subjects, except for a ceiling effect found for the social functioning measure.
Measurement tools that are used in combination are needed to optimize the applicability and utility of outcome results. The toolkit has the potential to become a valuable method for researchers and clinicians reporting geriatric rehabilitation outcomes.
To determine if Algo, a clinical algorithm to select bathing equipment for 'straightforward' cases, guides home health aides in selecting the appropriate bath seat.
Criterion validity study.
Community home care.
Eight home health aides used Algo with community-dwelling older adults having a straightforward problem.
Their bath-seat recommendations were compared with those proposed by an occupational therapist (OT), which were considered as the gold standard. In order to determine a clinically acceptable threshold of agreement between the recommendations, a subgroup of community-dwelling elderly people was assessed a third time by another OT.
Half of the clients (74/143) for whom bathroom assessments were requested qualified as potentially straightforward cases after triage and were visited at home by a home health aide using Algo. In 84% of cases (95% confidence interval (CI) = [75, 93]), the non-OTs using Algo identified a seat that would enable these older adults to bathe according to their preferences, abilities and environment, as confirmed by the gold standard OT. Moreover, this appropriateness rate did not statistically differ from that obtained when comparing another OT to the gold standard.
Algo guides non-OTs toward a bath seat that meets the needs of community-dwelling older adults in the majority of cases.
Clinical reasoning, a critical skill influenced by education and practice context, determines how occupational therapists teach transfer skills. Teaching strategies affect intervention efficacy. Although knowledge about the way teaching strategies are chosen could help improve interventions, few studies have considered this aspect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the clinical reasoning process of occupational therapists underlying the choice of strategies to teach older adults transfer skills.
A grounded theory study was carried out with eleven community occupational therapists recruited in six Health and Social Services Centres in Québec, Canada. Data were collected through observations of teaching situations (n = 31), in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 12) and memos, and were analysed using constant comparative methods. Memos were also used to raise codes to conceptual categories, leading to an integrative framework. Rigour was assured by following scientific criteria for qualitative studies.
The integrative framework includes the clinical reasoning process, consisting of eight stages, and its factors of influence. These factors are internal (experiences and elements of personal context) and external (type of transfer, clients' and their environment's characteristics and practice context).
The clinical reasoning process underlying the choice of strategies to teach transfer skills was conceptualised into an integrative framework. Such a framework supports clinicians' reflective practice, highlights the importance of theory and practice of pedagogy in occupational therapists' education, and encourages consideration and better documentation of the possible influence of practice context on teaching interventions. As such, this integrative framework could improve occupational therapists' transfer skill interventions with older adults.
This study was conducted to compare, by age group and gender, the level of participation of older adults who had no disabilities, and to determine which characteristics are most associated with participation. This study involved 350 randomly recruited community-dwelling older adults. Participation in daily activities and social roles were measured with the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H). Demographic, health-related and environmental data were also collected. A decline with age was observed in four of the six daily activities domains and two of the four social roles domains of participation. However, these lower scores are mainly explained by the 85+ group, which consistently scored lower than the 65-69-year-old group. No differences were found between the 65-69, 70-74 and 75-79 years old groups. Some participation domains differed according to gender. Satisfaction with participation was high and did not differ between age groups. Characteristics most associated with participation vary according to the domains; generally, age and marital status are the best determinants of participation. This study found that most of older adults have an unrestricted level of participation which decreases only late in the aging process. This reduction in participation in very old adults was not accompanied by a decrease in satisfaction, supporting the hypothesis that they can participate satisfactorily in valued activities.
The objectives of the study were to compare the association and responsiveness of the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF) and functional independence measure (FIM) as outcome measures addressing functional independence in stroke patients involved in an intensive rehabilitation program and to compare their relationships with a social participation measure after rehabilitation period. One hundred and thirty-two people who had a stroke were evaluated with the SMAF and FIM during the rehabilitation period (T1: admission; T2: discharge; n=132) and twice after discharge (T3=2 weeks; n=118; T4=6 months later; n=102). At T3 and T4, a participation measure, the assessment of life habits (LIFE-H), was added. The main findings are: (1) the total scores on the SMAF and FIM are strongly correlated together (r=0.93 to 0.95; p
Recent studies show that fear of falling, a frequent fear of community-dwelling seniors, can have a negative impact on their health and quality of life. When fear of falling is intense, it can prompt individuals to limit or avoid certain activities. This activity restriction can lead to premature physical and functional decline and, ultimately, increase the risk for falls. Although activity avoidance/restriction is a common strategy used by seniors to cope with fear of falling, they may use other strategies as well to cope with this fear. However, these other strategies have received little attention to date.
This study aimed at examining and comparing coping strategies used by seniors with and without fear of falling. It also examined if fear of falling is an independent correlate of the use of coping strategies among seniors.
288 seniors aged 65 years or over and going through the normal aging process were assessed during structured home interviews. Fear of falling was assessed through a single question (Are you afraid of falling?) and a 4-category response scale (never, occasionally, often, very often). Coping strategies used by participants were assessed with the Inventory of Coping Strategies Used by the Elderly.
Findings show that seniors with fear of falling use several coping strategies other than activity avoidance/restriction in their daily functioning. Compared with nonfearful seniors, they tend to use a wider range of coping strategies and use them more frequently. Results also indicate that fear of falling is an independent correlate of diversity and frequency of use of behavioral coping strategies.
This study suggests that fall prevention practitioners and researchers should document the range and frequency of use of strategies that seniors may employ to cope with fear of falling. These data could help improve interventions and evaluative research in the domain of fall prevention.