There is a paucity of information about the views of dialysis nurses towards dialysis modality selection, yet nurses often have the most direct contact time with patients. We conducted a survey to better understand nurses' attitudes and perceptions, and hypothesized that nurses with different areas of expertise would have differences in opinions.
We administered an electronic survey to all dialysis/predialysis nurses (n = 129) at a large, tertiary care center. The survey included questions about preferred therapy - in-center hemodialysis (CHD), versus home dialysis (home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) and ideal modality mix. Responses were compared between nurses with home dialysis and CHD experience.
The survey response rate was 69%. Both nursing groups ranked patient caregivers and dialysis nurses as having the least impact on patient modality selection. For most patient characteristics (including age > 70 years and presence of multiple chronic illnesses), CHD nurses felt that CHD was somewhat or strongly preferred, while home dialysis nurses preferred a home modality (p
In the last 15 years in Canada, there have been less stringent guidelines for peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy, availability of novel PD solutions, and lower PD-related peritonitis rates. Effects of these changes on outcomes of incident patients treated with PD during this period are unknown.
Risk of PD technique failure and mortality were compared among three incident cohorts of PD patients who initiated dialysis during the following periods: 1995-2000, 2001-2005, and 2006-2009. A multivariable model was used to evaluate time to PD technique failure using inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights accounting for changing survival and transplantation rates.
Between 1995 and 2009,13,120 incident adult PD patients were identified from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Compared with the 1995-2000 cohort (n=5183), the risk of PD technique failure was lower among patients between 2001 and 2005 (n=4316) but similar among incident patients between 2006 and 2009 (n=3621). Cause-specific PD technique failure revealed no difference in PD peritonitis-related technique failure over time. PD technique failure due to inadequate PD was initially higher in the 2001-2005 cohort but lower in the 2006-2009 cohort compared with the 1995-2000 cohort. Relative to incident patients between 1995 and 2000, adjusted mortality was lower among incident patients between 2001 and 2005 and 2006 and 2009.
Survival on PD continues to improve with only modest changes in PD technique failure. Peritonitis remains an ongoing and modifiable source of PD technique failure.
Cites: Kidney Int. 2001 Oct;60(4):1517-2411576367
Cites: Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Jan;37(1 Suppl 1):S65-S13611229968
Cites: Am J Kidney Dis. 2002 Sep;40(3):611-2212200814
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome and to identify predictors of mortality in elderly patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD).
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who started on CPD at the Division of Nephrology, University Health Network (UHN), Toronto, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2001. Patients were divided into three different age groups (/=75 years). Baseline variables included demographics, information on primary kidney disease, comorbidities when dialysis was first started, and initial biochemical data such as serum albumin, serum calcium (corrected for protein), phosphate, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol, and triglyceride. The effects of these variables on survival were studied using a univariate procedure and then analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models in order to evaluate their independent relation to mortality.
This study included 358 patients, among whom 213 (59.5%) were /=75 years old. Mean actuarial (death-censored) technique survival for the overall study population was 72.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-78.5); in the /=75 year-old groups mean survivals were 74.4, 62.0, and 64.5 months, respectively. The death-censored technique survival for the elderly patients was not statistically significantly different from that in young patients (P = 0.778). In the overall study population, the mean patient survival was 70.4 months (95% CI 64.2-76.6), while the mean survivals for the /=75 year-old groups were 82.3, 54.0, and 50.0 months, respectively. The overall survival rates at 12 months were 98%, 84%, and 85% for the /=75 year-old groups, respectively. Not surprisingly, the survival of elderly patients on CPD is shorter than that of younger patients (P = 0.000). There were no significant differences between the two elderly groups (P = 0.439). Mortality was predicted by lower initial serum total cholesterol and albumin as well as higher serum calcium levels.
Our study shows that elderly patients starting CPD had a death-censored technique survival comparable to that of younger patients. As expected, the survival of elderly patients on CPD was shorter than the survival of younger patients. Lower initial serum total cholesterol and albumin as well as higher initial serum calcium were associated with mortality in the elderly population. Our findings indicate that chronic peritoneal dialysis is a successful dialysis option for elderly patients with end stage renal disease. Measures to improve their nutritional state and achieve normalization of serum calcium might improve their survival.
Objective. We compared patient characteristics, dialysis practice patterns and outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients between one Chinese centre and one Canadian centre to determine whether observed differences in demographics and practices are associated with patient and technique survival.
This study included all patients who started on PD between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004 at the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Canada and Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China. They were followed up from the date of PD initiation until death, cessation of PD, transfer to other centres or to the end of the study (31 December 2006).
We studied 496 patients, 256 from the Canadian centre and 240 from the Chinese centre. Canadian patients were older and more likely to have diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities at the initiation of PD, while the Chinese patients had lower residual renal function (RRF). More Canadian patients were treated with APD, whereas all Chinese patients were on CAPD with a lower PD volume. Crude patient survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were similar between the two centres: 90%, 79%, 72% and 61% for Canadian and 90%, 79%, 71% and 64% for Chinese patients, respectively. After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, there is no significant difference in mortality between Chinese patients and Canadian patients. Age, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, RRF and serum albumin were independent predictors of patient survival. The death-censored technique survival rates were significantly lower among the Canadian patients compared to Chinese patients. Chinese patients showed a lower risk of technique failure (HR 0.491, 95% CI 0.269-0.898, P = 0.021) after adjustment for patient characteristics. Chinese centre, BMI, serum albumin and gender were independent predictors of technique survival. The average peritonitis rate was one episode every 36.1 patient-months in Canadian patients and one episode every 60.6 patient-months in their Chinese counterparts.
Patient characteristics, dialysis practice patterns and outcomes vary between Canadian and Chinese patients. The variability in patient outcomes between these two centres indicates that further improvements may be possible in both centres. We have identified several areas for improving outcomes.
Several comparisons of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) in incident patients with ESRD demonstrate superior survival in PD-treated patients within the first 1 to 2 years. These survival differences may be due to higher HD-related mortality as a result of high rates of incident central venous catheter (CVC) use or due to an initial survival advantage conferred by PD. We compared the survival of incident PD patients with those who initiated HD with a CVC (HD-CVC) or with a functional arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft (HD-AVF/AVG). We used multivariable piece-wise exponential nonproportional and proportional hazards models to evaluate early (1 year) mortality as well as overall mortality during the period of observation using an intention-to-treat approach. We identified 40,526 incident adult dialysis patients from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register (2001 to 2008). Compared with the 7412 PD patients, 1-year mortality was similar for the 6663 HD-AVF/AVG patients but was 80% higher for the 24,437 HD-CVC patients (adjusted HR, 1.8; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.6 to 1.9). During the entire period of follow-up, HD-AVF/AVG patients had a lower risk for death, and HD-CVC patients had a higher risk for death compared with patients on PD. In conclusion, the use of CVCs in incident HD patients largely accounts for the early survival benefit seen with PD.
Cites: J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Sep;13(9):2353-6212191980
Despite reductions in the frequency of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infectious complications over time, peritonitis and catheter infection remain important causes of morbidity and mortality. Given the increasing number of elderly patients reaching end-stage renal disease, making informed decisions about PD utilization is contingent on an understanding of the infectious complications of PD in this population. We therefore studied the impact of age on infection rates, organisms and outcomes.
On the basis of data collected from 1996 to 2005 in the multicenter Baxter Peritonitis Organism Exit sites Tunnel infections database, the study population included 4247 incident Canadian PD patients: 1265 patients aged > or =70 yr and 2982 patients aged
An increasing number of patients are returning to dialysis after allograft loss (DAGL). These patients are at a higher mortality risk compared with incident ESRD patients. Among transplant-naïve patients, those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) enjoy an early survival advantage compared with those treated with hemodialysis (HD), but this advantage is not sustained over time. Whether a similar time-dependent survival advantage exists for PD-treated patients after allograft loss is unclear and may impact dialysis modality selection in these patients.
We identified 2110 adult patients who initiated dialysis after renal transplant failure between January 1991 and December 2005 from The Canadian Organ Replacement Register. Multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of initial dialysis modality on early (2 years), late (after 2 years), and overall mortality using an intention-to-treat approach.
After adjustment, there was no difference in overall survival between HD- and PD-treated patients (hazard ratio((HD:PD)), 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.31), with similar results seen for both early and late survival. Superior survival was seen in more contemporary cohorts of patients returning to DAGL.
The use of PD compared with HD is associated with similar early and overall survival among patients initiating DAGL. Differences in both patient characteristics and predialysis management between patients returning to DAGL and transplant-naive incident dialysis patients may be responsible for the absence of an early survival advantage with the use of PD in DAGL patients.
Survivors of severe acute kidney injury remain at high risk of death well after apparent recovery from the initial insult. Here we determine whether early nephrology follow-up after a hospitalization complicated by severe acute kidney injury associates with patient survival. This consisted of a cohort study of all hospitalized adults in Ontario from 1996 to 2008 with acute kidney injury who received temporary inpatient dialysis and survived for 90 days following discharge independent from dialysis. Propensity scores were used to match individuals with early nephrology follow-up, defined as a visit with a nephrologist within 90 days of discharge, to those without. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality of 3877 patients who met the eligibility criteria within a maximum follow-up of 2 years. A total of 1583 patients had early nephrology follow-up of whom 1184 were successfully matched 1:1 to those not receiving early follow-up. The incidence of all-cause mortality was lower in those patients with early nephrology follow-up compared with those without (8.4 compared with 10.6 per 100-patient years, hazard ratio 0.76 (95% CI: 0.62-0.93)). Thus, early nephrology follow-up after hospitalization with acute kidney injury and temporary dialysis was associated with improved survival. This finding requires definitive testing in a randomized controlled trial.
Advances in immunotherapy have improved survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who now face an increasing burden of chronic diseases including that of the kidney. As systemic inflammation is also thought to contribute directly to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we assessed this risk in patients with lupus, with and without a diagnosis of nephritis, and also identified modifiable risk factors. Accordingly, we enrolled 631 patients (predominantly Caucasian), of whom 504 were diagnosed with lupus within the first year and followed them an average of 11 years. Despite the presence of a chronic inflammatory disease, the rate of decline in renal function of 238 patients without nephritis was similar to that described for non-lupus patient cohorts. Progressive loss of kidney function developed exclusively in patients with lupus nephritis who had persistent proteinuria and dyslipidemia, although only six required dialysis or transplantation. The mortality rate was 16% with half of the deaths attributable to sepsis or cancer. Thus, despite the presence of a systemic inflammatory disease, the risk of progressive CKD in this lupus cohort was relatively low in the absence of nephritis. Hence, as in idiopathic glomerular disease, persistent proteinuria and dyslipidemia (modifiable risks) are the major factors for CKD progression in lupus patients with renal involvement.
Despite the decreasing incidence of peritonitis among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients over time, its occurrence is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Determining factors that are associated with PD peritonitis may facilitate the identification of patients who are at risk.
Using data collected in the multicenter Baxter POET database between 1996 and 2005, the study population included incident Canadian PD patients. Potential predictors of peritonitis were sought using a negative binomial model and an Andersen-Gill model. Study variables included age, gender, race, cause of renal disease, diabetes status, transfer from hemodialysis (HD), previous renal transplant, and continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) versus automated PD (APD).
Data were available for 4247 incident PD patients, including 1605 patients with a total of 2555 peritonitis episodes. Using the negative binomial regression model, factors that were independently associated with a higher peritonitis rate included age, Black race, and having transferred from HD. There was an interaction between gender and diabetes, with an increased risk for peritonitis among female patients with diabetes. The use of CAPD versus APD did not affect the peritonitis rate. The Andersen-Gill model for recurrent events yielded similar results.
Predictors of PD peritonitis included Black race, transferring from HD to PD, and diabetes among women. In contrast to previous findings, CAPD and APD were similar with regard to peritonitis risk.
Cites: Am J Kidney Dis. 1999 Dec;34(6):1065-7410585316