Access to health care for undocumented migrant children and pregnant women confronts human rights and professional values with political and institutional regulations that limit services. In order to understand how health care professionals deal with these diverging mandates, we assessed their attitudes toward providing care to this population. Clinicians, administrators, and support staff (n = 1,048) in hospitals and primary care centers of a large multiethnic city responded to an online survey about attitudes toward access to health care services. Analysis examined the role of personal and institutional correlates of these attitudes. Foreign-born respondents and those in primary care centers were more likely to assess the present access to care as a serious problem, and to endorse broad or full access to services, primarily based on human rights reasons. Clinicians were more likely than support staff to endorse full or broad access to health care services. Respondents who approved of restricted or no access also endorsed health as a basic human right (61.1%) and child development as a priority (68.6%). A wide gap separates attitudes toward entitlement to health care and the endorsement of principles stemming from human rights and the best interest of the child. Case-based discussions with professionals facing value dilemmas and training on children's rights are needed to promote equitable practices and advocacy against regulations limiting services.
Existing health education materials dealing with healthy eating, active living, and body image were examined by immigrant parents of elementary school children to determine their relevance, cultural competence, and accessibility. A total of 13 immigrant mothers from Sri Lanka and China participated in a series of three focus groups. Study findings indicate that the present health education materials intended to help prevent weight-related problems could be improved to better meet the needs of new immigrant families. Immigrant mothers who participated in the study expressed their preferences for health education materials and prevention interventions undertaken in a culturally relevant/competent, knowledge-sharing, participatory manner. Acting on these suggestions could help practitioners and public health agencies develop more effective strategies that meet the requirements of ethno-cultural immigrant communities.
Canadian healthcare insurance is not universal for all newcomer populations. New immigrant, refugee claimant, and migrant women face various barriers to healthcare due to the lack of public health insurance coverage. This retrospective study explored the relationships between insurance status and various perinatal outcomes. Researchers examined and compared perinatal outcomes for 453 uninsured and provincially insured women who delivered at two general hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area between 2007 and 2010. Data on key perinatal health indicators were collected via chart review of hospital medical records. Comparisons were made with regional statistics and professional guidelines where available. Four-in-five uninsured pregnant women received less-than-adequate prenatal care. More than half of them received clearly inadequate prenatal care, and 6.5% received no prenatal care at all. Insurance status was also related to the type of health care provider, reason for caesarean section, neonatal resuscitation rates, and maternal length of hospital stay. Uninsured mothers experienced a higher percentage of caesarian sections due to abnormal fetal heart rates and required more neonatal resuscitations. No significant difference was found for low birth weight, preterm birth, NCIU admissions, postpartum hemorrhage, breast feeding, or intrapartum care provided.
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The objective of this research was to explore self-management practices and the use of diabetes information and care among Black-Caribbean immigrants with type 2 diabetes.
The study population included Black-Caribbean immigrants and Canadian-born participants between the ages of 35 to 64 years with type 2 diabetes. Study participants were recruited from community health centres (CHCs), diabetes education centres, hospital-based diabetes clinics, the Canadian Diabetes Association and immigrant-serving organizations. A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographics and information related to diabetes status, self-management practices and the use of diabetes information and care.
Interviews were conducted with 48 Black-Caribbean immigrants and 54 Canadian-born participants with type 2 diabetes. Black-Caribbean immigrants were significantly more likely than the Canadian-born group to engage in recommended diabetes self-management practices (i.e. reduced fat diet, reduced carbohydrate diet, non-smoking and regular physical activity) and receive regular A1C and eye screening by a health professional. Black-Caribbean immigrant participants were significantly more likely to report receiving diabetes information and care through a community health centre (CHC) and nurses and dieticians than their Canadian-born counterparts.
CHCs and allied health professionals play an important role in the management of diabetes in the Black-Caribbean immigrant community and may contribute to this group's favourable diabetes self-management profile and access to information and care. Additional research is necessary to confirm whether these findings are generalizable to the Black-Caribbean community in general (i.e. immigrant and non-immigrant) and to determine whether the use of CHCs and/or allied health professionals is associated with favourable outcomes in the Black-Caribbean immigrant community as well as others.