The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at
Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ? 0.05 to 0.33 ? 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ? 0.014 to 0.095 ? 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ? 0.0035 to 0.053 ? 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ? 0.4 and 5.3 ? 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ? 1.3 to 42 ? 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.
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Edible mushrooms (Albatrellus ovinus, Boletus edulis, Clitocybe odora, Gomphidius glutinosus, Leccinum scabrum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus bovinus, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus) collected from unpolluted areas of the city of Umeå and its outskirts in the northern part of Sweden were examined for contents of toxic metallic elements (Cd, Pb, and Ag) and essential macro- and microelements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) using a validated method and a final measurement by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). The median values of the toxic metallic element concentrations (in mg kg(-1) dry biomass, db) ranged from: 0.12-3.9, 0.46-5.1, and 0.91-6.2 for Ag, Cd and Pb, respectively. For the essential metallic elements, the median values of concentrations ranged from: 24000-58000, 15-2000, 59-610, 520-1900, 2.0-97, 16-150, 15-120, and 4.3-26 mg kg(-1) db for K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn, respectively. The baseline concentrations of the metallic elements determined in mushrooms were mainly affected by the fungal species. The assessed probable maximal dietary intake of Cd (0.002 mg kg(-1) body mass) solely from a mushroom meal was only slightly below a revised value of the tolerable weekly intake for this element, while for Pb (0.003 mg kg(-1) body mass) it was tenfold below the provisionally tolerable weekly intake.
The aim of the study was to determine 16 elements by FAAS and ICP-AES in ca. 1500 samples of 22 species of mushrooms collected from different regions of Poland and the area around Umeå in Sweden. Chemometric techniques were applied to differentiate samples with respect to their geographical origin and interspecies differentiation. Samples of Cantharellus cibarius (Fr.), Boletus edulis (Bull.) and Leccinum scabrum (Bull.) Gray from Morag, Augustów, the Zaborski Landscape Park, Tarnobrzeg and Umeå were discriminated by factor 1 and factor 2. Some species, i.e. Cantharellus cibarius, Boletus edulis, Boletus pinophilus (Pilát & Dermek), Leccinum aurantiacum (Bull.) Gray, Leccinum scabrum and Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell from one region of Poland (Augustów or Morag) were discriminated by K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Cd. The results enabled an assessment of the hypothetical percentage realisation of the recommended dietary intake (RDA) for the bio-elements in question and of provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWI) of toxic metals from the consumption of 100?g of mushrooms. The most abundant element in all the mushroom samples was K, especially in Gomphidius glutinosus (Schaeff. ex Fr.) (Umeå - Sweden) and Cantharellus cibarius (Poland - Morag). Lycoperdon perlatum (Pers.) from Poland and Sweden tended to accumulate the highest levels of Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu. The highest percentage of RDA was obtained for K, Mg and Cu. Based on the estimated PTWI, it can be concluded that no health hazard is associated with the consumption of these mushrooms.