Long-term nationwide trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) incidence and 5-year outcomes are rare.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Danish National Patient Registry covering all Danish hospitals. We computed standardized incidence rates during 1983-2012. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of heart failure, stroke, and death within 5years, comparing 5-year calendar periods with the earliest period (1983-1987) as reference.
We identified 312,420 patients with first-time hospital-diagnosed AF. The incidence rate per 100,000person-years increased from 98 in 1983 to 307 in 2012. The mean annual increase during the 30-year study period was 4%, with a 6% increase annually until 2000 and a 1.4% increase annually thereafter. The incidence trends were most pronounced among men and persons above 70years. Among high-risk subgroups, AF incidence was consistently highest in patients with valvular heart disease or heart failure. The rate of heart failure following AF declined by 50% over the entire study period (HR: 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.51) and the mortality rate declined by 40% (HR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.61-0.63). Within the last two decades, the rate for ischemic stroke declined by 20% (HR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.78-0.84), but increased almost as much for haemorrhagic stroke (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29).
The long-term risk of heart failure, ischemic stroke, and death following onset of AF has decreased remarkably over the last three decades. Still, the threefold increased incidence of hospital-diagnosed AF during the same period is a major public health concern.
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important but expensive procedure that is the subject of some debate. Physicians' attitudes toward catheter ablation may influence promotion and patient acceptance. This is the first study to examine the attitudes of Danish cardiologists toward catheter ablation for AF, using a nationwide survey.
We developed a purpose-designed questionnaire to evaluate attitudes toward catheter ablation for AF that was sent to all Danish cardiologists (n = 401; response n = 272 (67.8%)). There was no association between attitudes toward ablation and the experience or age of the cardiologist with respect to patients with recurrent AF episodes with a duration of 7 days and/or need for cardioversion. The majority (69%) expected a recurrence of AF after catheter ablation in more than 30% of the cases. For patients with persistent longstanding AF with a duration of >1 year, the attitude toward ablation for longstanding AF was more likely to be positive with increasing age (P 7 days, or those who needed medical/electrical conversion, but a more negative attitude toward treating longstanding AF patients.
We conducted a study to assess the acute procedural success and the long-term effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with ischaemic heart disease.
We included 90 patients with ischaemic heart disease treated with RFA for VT in our institution. Data were obtained from patient files, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) discharges were recorded from in-house and remote follow-up data. Recurrence of VT during follow-up was noted as date of first ICD therapy for VT or first recurrence of symptomatic VT.
After the initial RFA procedure no VT was inducible in 42 patients (47%), non-clinical VT was inducible in 21 patients (23%), and the clinical VT was still inducible in 14 patients (16%). The procedural success was indefinable in 13 patients (14%). After a median follow-up of 33 months after the latest RFA, 38 patients (42%) stayed free from recurrent VT. The number of ICD shocks/year was significantly reduced from median 1.1 (interquartile range: 0.3-2.8) to 0 (0-0.4) (p
The risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) can be assessed by use of the CHADS2 and the CHA2DS2-VASc score system. We hypothesised that these risk scores and their individual components could also be applied to patients paced for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) to evaluate risk of stroke and death.
Prospective cohort study.
All Danish pacemaker centres and selected centres in the UK and Canada.
Risk factors were recorded prior to pacemaker implantation in 1415 patients with SSS participating in the Danish Multicenter Randomized Trial on Single Lead Atrial Pacing versus Dual Chamber Pacing in Sick Sinus Syndrome (Danpace) trial. Development of stroke was assessed at follow-up visits and by evaluation of patient charts. Mortality was assessed from the civil registration system.
Patients were randomised to AAIR (N = 707) or DDDR pacing (N = 708).
Stroke and death during follow-up.
Mean follow-up was 4.3 ± 2.5 years. In the AAIR group 6.9% patients developed stroke versus 6.1% in the DDDR group (NS). There was a significant association between CHADS2 score and the development of stroke (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.64, p
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Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient morbidity, healthcare costs, and possibly increased mortality.
Population-based cohort study in all Danish patients who underwent a CIED procedure from May 2010 to April 2011. Data on complications were gathered on review of all patient charts while baseline data were obtained from the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using binary regression. The study population consisted of 5918 consecutive patients. A total of 562 patients (9.5%) experienced at least one complication. The risk of any complication was higher if the patient was a female (aRR 1.3; 1.1-1.6), underweight (aRR 1.5; 1.1-2.3), implanted in a centre with an annual volume
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment in heart failure patients. However, a large proportion of patients remain nonresponsive to this pacing strategy. Left ventricular (LV) lead position is one of the main determinants of response to CRT. This study aims to clarify whether multimodality imaging guided LV lead placement improves clinical outcome after CRT.
The ImagingCRT study is a prospective, randomized, patient- and assessor-blinded, two-armed trial. The study is designed to investigate the effect of imaging guided left ventricular lead positioning on a clinical composite primary endpoint comprising all-cause mortality, hospitalization for heart failure, or unchanged or worsened functional capacity (no improvement in New York Heart Association class and
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The recent Danish Multicentre Randomized Trial on Single-Lead Atrial (AAIR) Pacing versus Dual-Chamber (DDDR) Pacing in Sick Sinus Syndrome (DANPACE) suggested DDDR pacing as standard care. However, previous findings supported the routine use of AAIR pacing. This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of DDDR pacing compared with AAIR pacing for sick sinus syndrome.
A decision-analytical model based on patient-level data from three randomized trials was designed from the Danish healthcare system's perspective. The main outcomes were lifetime costs, quality-adjusted lifeyears (QALYs), and net monetary benefit. Quality-adjusted lifeyears were calculated by utilizing community-based preferences. Costs were calculated by utilizing the extensive data on resource consumption, from the DANPACE trial. Data were pooled and adjusted for baseline differences. Dual-chamber pacing was shown to be cost-effective in all the analyses using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of £20,000/QALY, and most analyses using a WTP of £30,000/QALY. When pooling the data and adjusting for baseline differences, Monte Carlo simulations revealed a 51-71% probability of DDDR pacing being cost-effective at a WTP of £20,000/QALY, and a 42-58% probability at a WTP of £30,000/QALY. Dual-chamber pacing was most likely to be cost-effective among elderly patients with comorbidity. The expected value of perfect information was low and initiation of additional publicly funded Danish trials was discouraged.
Dual-chamber pacing is likely to be a cost-effective treatment for sick sinus syndrome patients.
Despite increasing use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and reports linking selected bio-implants with cancer, the cancer risk associated with implanted ICDs remains unknown. The objective of our study was to examine cancer risk among ICD recipients.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using medical registries covering the entire Danish population. We identified all first-time ICD recipients during the period of 2000-11 and determined their subsequent cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed by comparing observed cancer incidence in the ICD cohort with expected cancer incidence based on national incidence rates according to age, sex, and year of diagnosis. A total of 6723 ICD recipients were followed for up to 12 years (median 2.8 years) and contributed a total of 23 254 person-years of follow-up. Compared with the general population, ICD recipients had a slightly elevated overall risk of cancer [SIR = 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.2)]. This was driven by the cancer risk among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) [SIR = 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.3)], which, as expected, was particularly elevated for tobacco-related cancers [SIR = 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6)]. Importantly, ICD recipients without IHD were not at increased cancer risk [SIR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.8-1.3)].
This nationwide population-based cohort study with up to 12-year follow-up did not indicate a causal relation between ICD implantation and cancer. However, more follow-up data are needed to entirely rule out risks for individual cancer types.
Infection is a serious complication of pacemaker (PM) systems. Although the rate of infection has been debated, the figures are largely unknown. We therefore studied the incidence of PM infection and its associated risk factors in the Danish population.
Since 1982, all PM implantation and removal procedures performed in Denmark have been prospectively recorded in the Danish Pacemaker Register. All patients (n = 46299) who underwent implantation between 1982 and 2007 were included. The total length of surveillance was 236,888 PM-years. The incidence of infection was calculated according to the total number of PM-years. The incidence of surgical site infection (= 365 days after PM implantation) was compared with later infection in first implant and replacement procedures. Multiple-record and multiple-event-per-subject proportional hazards analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors of PM infection. Surgical site infection occurred in 192 cases after first implantation (incidence rate 4.82/1000 PM-years), and in 133 cases after replacement (12.12/1000 PM-years). Infections occurring more than 365 days after the first implantation occurred in 153 cases (1.02/1000 PM-years), and in 118 cases after replacement (3.26/1000 PM-years). Independent factors associated with an increased risk of PM infection were a greater number of PM operations (including replacements), male sex, younger age, implantation during the earliest part of the study period, and absence of antibiotics (P
No large randomized multicentre trial has evaluated the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) vs. anti-arrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy as a first-line treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF).
The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation (MANTRA-PAF) trial is a randomized, controlled, parallel group, multicentre study designed to test whether catheter-based RFA is superior to optimized AAD therapy in suppressing relapse within 24 months of symptomatic and/or asymptomatic AF in patients with paroxysmal AF without prior AAD therapy. The primary endpoint is cumulative AF burden on repeated 7 days Holter monitoring. Secondary endpoints are: thromboembolic events, hospitalization due to arrhythmia, pro-arrhythmic events, procedure/treatment-related side effects, health economics, quality of life, and change in left ventricular function. Ten centres in Scandinavia and Germany are participating in the study. Enrolment was started in 2005 and as of November 2008, 260 patients have been enrolled into the study. It is expected that enrolment will end by March 2009, when 300 patients have been included.
The MANTRA-PAF trial will determine whether catheter-based RFA is superior to optimized AAD therapy as a first-line treatment in suppressing long-term relapse of symptomatic and/or asymptomatic AF.