Collaborative practice is receiving increased attention as a model of healthcare delivery that positively influences the effectiveness and efficiency of patient care while improving the work environment of healthcare providers. The collaborative practice assessment tool (CPAT) was developed from the literature to enable interprofessional teams to assess their collaborative practice. The CPAT survey included 56 items across nine domains including: mission and goals; relationships; leadership; role responsibilities and autonomy; communication; decision-making and conflict management; community linkages and coordination; perceived effectiveness and patient involvement; in addition to three open-ended questions. The tool was developed for use in a variety of settings involving a diversity of healthcare providers with the aim of helping teams to identify professional development needs and corresponding educational interventions. The results of two pilot tests indicated that the CPAT is a valid and reliable tool for assessing levels of collaborative practice within teams. This article describes the development of the tool, the pilot testing and validation process, as well as limitations of the tool.
The role of case manager is fraught with challenges in a healthcare environment characterized by rapid aging of the population, a move against institutionalization of seniors, and the need to contain healthcare costs. This study examined experiences of 89 case managers through focus groups in five urban and five rural regions of Canada to identify ethical dilemmas and issues encountered in their role. Overall, the case managers expressed frustration for the lack of support for their work as evidenced by inadequate resources and few agency policies. The analysis of the focus group data revealed four main themes in relation to ethical concerns and dilemmas: (1) issues related to equity, (2) beneficence, (3) non-maleficence, and (4) autonomy and power imbalances. The situation facing these workers is grave and steps must be taken to provide them with ongoing training, support, and resources to continue in this vital role. System changes that would reduce some of the ethical conflicts experienced by case managers include funding for long-term care to keep pace with growing demands, better management of client waitlists to ensure that the most needy are given the highest priority, more supportive housing options that provide for some on-site coordination of services, better opportunities for health promotion, and better interdisciplinary teamwork so that case managers are not left making decisions in the absence of other key service providers.
In order to answer the research question--What factors determine if a long-term care client will be cared for at home or in a long-term care facility?--data were collected in five provinces in Canada in urban and rural sites, through focus groups with community care coordinators. A questionnaire provided information about the 89 participants and their workload. Factors are grouped under organizational, system, client, informal provider, formal provider, and case manager factors. Discussion focuses on changes needed to foster more long-term care in the home.
Venipuncture is now the standard method of phlebotomy for well newborn infants at Kingston General Hospital (KGH), Canada. Newborn infants require at least one blood sample for mandatory genetic screening. Some will require additional samples for monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia or other laboratory tests. A change from capillary heel sticks to venipuncture was implemented when the lancets in use were discontinued and a suitable replacement could not be found at the time. A review of the literature discovered a Cochrane Neonatal Review that supported newborn venipuncture as a safe, pain-reducing practice when performed by trained phlebotomists. As a result, a quality improvement project was developed to implement the practice of venipuncture for the well newborn. The implementation and evaluation included lectures, demonstrations, return demonstrations, and eventual integration into clinical practice. Process and summative evaluation demonstrated a willingness of staff to learn a new procedure, particularly when they had identified the need for change. In addition, infants were not subjected to multiple, ineffective blood draws.
The 'Professionals in Rural Practice' course was developed with the aim of preparing students enrolled in professional programs in Canada to become better equipped for the possible eventuality of professional work in a rural setting. To match the reality of living and working in a rural community, which by nature is interprofessional, the course designers were an interprofessional teaching team. In order to promote group cohesiveness the course included the participation of an interprofessional group of students and instructors from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, teacher education, and theology. The format of the course included three-hour classes over an eight-week period and a two-day field experience in a rural community. The course utilized various experiential and interactive teaching and learning methods, along with a variety of assessment methods. Data were collected from student participants over two iterations of the course using a mixed methods approach. Results demonstrate that students value the interprofessional and experiential approach to learning and viewed this course as indispensable for gaining knowledge of other professions and preparation for rural practice. The data reveal important organizational and pedagogical considerations specific to interprofessional education, community based action research, and the unique interprofessional nature of training for life and work in a rural community. This study also indicates the potential value of further longitudinal study of participants in this course. Key words: Canada, community based action research, education, interdisciplinary, interprofessional.
To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations.
Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed.
This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in rural settings. Remuneration models should facilitate interprofessional collaboration. 9. Practitioners skilled in neonatal resuscitation and newborn care are essential to rural maternity care. 10. Training of rural maternity health care providers should include collaborative practice as well as the necessary clinical skills and competencies. Sites must be developed and supported to train midwives, nurses, and physicians and provide them with the skills necessary for rural maternity care. Training in rural and northern settings must be supported. 11. Generalist skills in maternity care, surgery, and anaesthesia are valued and should be supported in training programs in family medicine, surgery, and anaesthesia as well as nursing and midwifery. 12. All physicians and nurses should be exposed to maternity care in their training, and basic competencies should be met. 13. Quality improvement and outcome monitoring should be integral to all maternity care systems. 14. Support must be provided for ongoing, collaborative, interprofessional, and locally provided continuing education and patient safety programs.
The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of supportive care needs from the perspective of parents of children diagnosed with cancer within an urban-rural region in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Guided by a conceptual framework for supportive care, the exploratory, mixed-method study used a standard needs survey and semistructured interviews. Fifteen parents completed (75% response rate) the survey, and 3 parents participated as key informants in the follow-up interview. Parents reported needs in all 6 of the need categories outlined within the Supportive Care Needs Framework. The proportion of parents expressing a need ranged from 23% to 39%. Dealing with the fear of their child's cancer spreading was frequently identified by parents. Emotional and informational needs were the 2 most frequently acknowledged categories of need. With further refinement, the use of the conceptual framework will provide a methodology for planning care based on the individual needs identified by parents of children with cancer.