In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced a 7-valent vaccine (PCV7) that contained all PCV7 serotypes plus 6 additional serotypes (PCV6+). We conducted annual surveys from 2008 to 2012 to determine the effect of PCV13 on colonization by pneumococcal serotypes.
We obtained nasopharyngeal swabs for pneumococcal identification and serotyping from residents of all ages at 8 rural villages and children age
We investigated serotype 6A/6C invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence, genetic diversity, and carriage before and after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Alaska. IPD cases (1986-2009) were identified through population-based laboratory surveillance. Isolates were initially serotyped by conventional methods, and 6C isolates were differentiated from 6A by polymerase chain reaction. Among invasive and carriage isolates initially typed as 6A, 35% and 50% were identified as 6C, respectively. IPD rates caused by serotype 6A or 6C among children
We evaluated nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) in nine Alaskan communities and used an algorithm combining microbiologic, serologic, and sequential multiplex PCR (MP-PCR) techniques to serotype the isolates. After microbiological identification as pneumococci, isolates (n = 1,135) were serotyped using latex agglutination and Quellung tests (LA/Q) as well as a series of six sequential MP-PCR assays. Results from the two methods agreed for 94% (1,064/1,135) of samples. Eighty-six percent (61/71) of the discordant results were resolved. Discordant results occurred because (i) the MP-PCR gel was misread (31/61 [51%]), (ii) the LA/Q agglutination was misinterpreted (13/61 [21%]), (iii) two serotypes or sets of serotypes were identified by MP-PCR and only one of the two was identified by LA/Q (9/61 [15%]), (iv) different serotypes or sets of serotypes were identified by LA/Q and MP-PCR and both were correct (7/61 [11%]), and (v) the capsular polysaccharide locus (cps) did not amplify during the initial MP-PCR but was present upon retesting (1/61 [2%]). Overall, isolation of pneumococci followed by MP-PCR quickly and accurately identified pneumococcal serotypes in >97% of samples and made available isolates for additional tests such as antimicrobial susceptibility. Misinterpretation of the MP-PCR gel was identified as the main source of discordance. Increasing the number of MP-PCRs from six to seven and reducing the number of serotypes in each reaction may reduce this error. This method may be of use to laboratories characterizing large numbers of S. pneumoniae samples, especially when antimicrobial susceptibility data are needed.
American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people suffer substantially higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) than the general US population. We evaluated antimicrobial prescribing data and their association with non-susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae causing IPD in AI/AN people between 1992 and 2009.
Antimicrobial use data were gathered from the electronic patient management system and included all prescriptions dispensed to Alaska Native patients aged 5 years and older from outpatient pharmacies at the Alaska Native Medical Center (ANMC). Antimicrobial susceptibility data were gathered from pneumococcal isolates causing IPD among Anchorage Service Unit AI/AN residents aged 5 years and older. Data were restricted to serotypes not contained in the pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7).
Over the study period, overall antimicrobial prescribing increased 59% (285/1,000 persons/year in 1992 to 454/1,000 persons per year in 2009, p
From the *Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK; †Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Anchorage, AK; ‡Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Atlanta, GA; §Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD; and ¶Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Office of Public Health Support, Indian Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), Albuquerque, NM.