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Accumulated exposure to unemployment is related to impaired glucose metabolism in middle-aged men: A follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291192
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Aug; 11(4):365-372
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Nina Rautio
Tuulia Varanka-Ruuska
Eeva Vaaramo
Saranya Palaniswamy
Rozenn Nedelec
Jouko Miettunen
Jaro Karppinen
Juha Auvinen
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Sylvain Sebert
Leena Ala-Mursula
Author Affiliation
Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland; Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: nina.rautio@oulu.fi.
Source
Prim Care Diabetes. 2017 Aug; 11(4):365-372
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Biomarkers - blood
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Chi-Square Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Glucose Tolerance Test
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prediabetic State - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Time Factors
Unemployment
Abstract
We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.
Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (=1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).
Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p
Notes
CommentIn: Prim Care Diabetes. 2018 Feb;12 (1):92 PMID 28807657
PubMed ID
28456438 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accumulation of lifestyle and psychosocial problems and persistence of adverse lifestyle over two-year follow-up among Finnish adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265971
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:542
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Eveliina Heikkala
Jouko Remes
Markus Paananen
Simo Taimela
Juha Auvinen
Jaro Karppinen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:542
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adolescent Health Services
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life Style
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Obesity
Questionnaires
Smoking
Abstract
Adolescent'psychosocial problems associate with unhealthy behaviors, but data on co-occurring patterns is sparse. We investigated 1) whether adolescents could be categorized into meaningful subgroups with respect to psychosocial and lifestyle factors, 2) whether the prevalence of physical inactivity, overweight and smoking vary within the subgroups and 3) whether these unhealthy behaviors persist in a two-year follow-up.
The study was based on a subgroup of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort, which consisted of adolescents who replied to a postal questionnaire at 16 years (n?=?6792) and a subgroup of this sample at 18 years (n?=?1552). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to establish clusters at 16 years.
Smoking co-existed with emotional and behavioral problems in both genders. Boys with the most inactive lifestyle slept poorly, whereas multiple problems co-occurred among girls. Those with a high body mass index (BMI) separated as groups of their own. Different combinations of adverse lifestyle and emotional and behavioral problems were relatively common in both sexes as only 51% of boys and 67% of girls belonged to the reference cluster with low probability for these findings. Physical inactivity, high BMI and smoking tended to persist over the two-year follow-up.
It seems that lifestyle and psychosocial factors divide adolescents into distinct subgroups in which unhealthy lifestyle patterns remain between the ages of 16 and 18. This may indicate problems in other life areas and expose them to an increased risk of future health problems.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24884444 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of psychosocial and lifestyle factors and risk of low back pain in adolescence: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276396
Source
Eur Spine J. 2016 Feb;25(2):635-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Paula Mikkonen
Eveliina Heikkala
Markus Paananen
Jouko Remes
Simo Taimela
Juha Auvinen
Jaro Karppinen
Source
Eur Spine J. 2016 Feb;25(2):635-42
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cluster analysis
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Internal-External Control
Life Style
Low Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Male
Motor Activity
Obesity - complications - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is common already in adolescence, and many risk indicators including both psychosocial and lifestyle factors have been recognized. Our purpose was to assess whether the co-occurrence of psychosocial (externalizing and internalizing) problems and lifestyle factors (leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, smoking, and overweight/obesity) associate with LBP at 16 years cross-sectionally or with new LBP at 18-year follow-up.
The study population, drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, consisted of 1625 participants (712 boys and 913 girls) who completed a questionnaire on potential explanatory factors at 16 years and on LBP at 16 and 18 years. The outcome measure was 'reporting LBP' or 'consultation for LBP' during the past 6 months. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was utilized to study the co-occurrence of the explanatory factors.
Among both genders, four clusters were found. Externalizing behaviour problems were associated with 'reporting LBP' (RR 1.5, boys 1.4, girls) and 'consultation for LBP' (RR 1.6 for both genders) at baseline among both genders. In addition, the cluster of multiple risk behaviours was associated with both 'reporting LBP' (RR 1.3) and 'consultation for LBP' (RR 2.5) and the obese cluster with 'consultation for LBP' (RR 1.7) among girls. Externalizing behaviour problems at 16 years predicted 'consultation for LBP' at 18 years among girls (RR 3.6).
Our results stress the role of psychosocial factors in reporting and seeking care for adolescent LBP.
PubMed ID
26070550 View in PubMed
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The association between carotid intima-media thickness and sciatica.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163515
Source
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Dec;37(3):174-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Rahman Shiri
Eira Viikari-Juntura
Päivi Leino-Arjas
Tapio Vehmas
Helena Varonen
Leena Moilanen
Jaro Karppinen
Markku Heliövaara
Author Affiliation
Musculoskeletal Disorders, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. rahman.shiri@ttl.fi
Source
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Dec;37(3):174-81
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Carotid Arteries - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - epidemiology - ultrasonography
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Heart Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Low Back Pain - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Sciatica - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Smoking - epidemiology
Tunica Intima - ultrasonography
Tunica Media - ultrasonography
Abstract
Both clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown an association between atherosclerotic changes in the aorta or lumbar arteries and lumbar disc degeneration. However, the association between atherosclerosis and sciatica remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid intima-media thickness and sciatica.
The target population consisted of people aged 45 to 74 years, who had participated in a Finnish nationwide population study during the period 2000 to 2001 and lived within 200 km of the 6 study clinics. Of the 1867 eligible subjects, 1386 (74%) were included in the study. We used high-resolution B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure intima-media thickness, and local or radiating low back pain was determined by a standard interview and clinical signs of sciatica through a physician's clinical examination.
Carotid intima-media thickness was associated with continuous radiating low back pain and with a positive unilateral clinical sign of sciatica among men only. After adjustment for potential confounders, each standard deviation (0.23 mm) increment in carotid intima-media thickness showed an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3) for continuous radiating low back pain and 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.1) for a positive unilateral clinical sign of sciatica. Carotid intima-media thickness was not associated with local low back pain.
Sciatica may be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share common risk factors.
PubMed ID
17507076 View in PubMed
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Association between height and osteoarthritis of the knee and hip: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292398
Source
Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Sep; 20(9):1095-1104
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Maiju Welling
Juha Auvinen
Petri Lehenkari
Minna Männikkö
Jaro Karppinen
Pasi J Eskola
Author Affiliation
Center for Life Course Health Research, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Sep; 20(9):1095-1104
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Body Height
Body Weight
Case-Control Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Middle Aged
Osteoarthritis, Hip - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Osteoarthritis, Knee - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate whether height at the age of 31 is associated with the incidence of knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) in the following 15 years.
Participants in The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) diagnosed with knee or hip OA between the ages of 31 and 46 were used as OA cases. Study subjects without knee and hip OA were used as the controls. Height and weight were measured in a clinical examination at the age of 31 (baseline). Mean heights for the OA cases and the controls were compared by an independent samples t-test. Cox regression analysis was performed to calculate the risk for OA for different height quartiles. The results were adjusted for body mass index/weight, education, smoking and leisure-time physical activity at baseline. Additionally, a Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed.
Men with knee OA were 2.6 cm taller (P
PubMed ID
28296269 View in PubMed
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Association between overweight and low back pain: a population-based prospective cohort study of adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267114
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 May 20;38(12):1026-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-20-2013
Author
Paula Hannele Mikkonen
Jaana Laitinen
Jouko Remes
Tuija Tammelin
Simo Taimela
Kaisu Kaikkonen
Paavo Zitting
Raija Korpelainen
Jaro Karppinen
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 May 20;38(12):1026-33
Date
May-20-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Body mass index
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology
Male
Odds Ratio
Pain Measurement
Pediatric Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
A prospective cohort study in adolescents aged 7 to 19 years.
To evaluate whether persistent overweight increases the risk of low back pain (LBP) among adolescents.
Overweight and LBP are common health problems in adolescents. Their relationship is still controversial among adolescents, as well as among adults.
The study population, the Oulu Back Study, was drawn from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The final study sample included 1660 adolescents (56% females). The subcohort of 786 subjects (57% females) was used in the analysis of waist circumference. The association between the area under the curve of body mass index from 7 to 16 years, and from 16 to 18 years, and area under the curve of waist circumference from 16 to 19 years, and LBP during the past 6 months was evaluated separately for incident (reporting LBP at 18 or 19 yr but not at 16 yr) and persistent LBP (reporting LBP at 16 and 18 yr or 19 yr). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were adjusted for smoking, leisure time physical activity, and family socioeconomic status at 16 years and stratified by sex.
Body mass index from 16 to 18 years among girls and body mass index from 7 to 16 years among boys predicted incident LBP at 18 years (girls: RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; boys: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32). Among boys, waist circumference from 16 to 19 years was also associated with incident LBP (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32). Overweight was not associated with persistent LBP.
In this population-based cohort study, persistent overweight slightly increased the risk of incident LBP, but the time period during which overweight was related to incident LBP differed between sexes.
2.
PubMed ID
23459137 View in PubMed
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The association between smoking and low back pain: a meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145829
Source
Am J Med. 2010 Jan;123(1):87.e7-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Rahman Shiri
Jaro Karppinen
Päivi Leino-Arjas
Svetlana Solovieva
Eira Viikari-Juntura
Author Affiliation
Centre of Expertise for Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. rahman.shiri@ttl.fi
Source
Am J Med. 2010 Jan;123(1):87.e7-35
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Low Back Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Pain Measurement
Prognosis
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Abstract
To assess the association between smoking and low back pain with meta-analysis.
We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until February 2009. Eighty-one studies were reviewed and 40 (27 cross-sectional and 13 cohort) studies were included in the meta-analyses.
In cross-sectional studies, current smoking was associated with increased prevalence of low back pain in the past month (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.45), low back pain in the past 12 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI, 1.26-1.41), seeking care for low back pain (OR 1.49, 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), chronic low back pain (OR 1.79, 95% CI, 1.27-2.50) and disabling low back pain (OR 2.14, 95% CI, 1.11-4.13). Former smokers had a higher prevalence of low back pain compared with never smokers, but a lower prevalence of low back pain than current smokers. In cohort studies, both former (OR 1.32, 95% CI, 0.99-1.77) and current (OR 1.31, 95% CI, 1.11-1.55) smokers had an increased incidence of low back pain compared with never smokers. The association between current smoking and the incidence of low back pain was stronger in adolescents (OR 1.82, 95% CI, 1.42-2.33) than in adults (OR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.02-1.32).
Our findings indicate that both current and former smokers have a higher prevalence and incidence of low back pain than never smokers, but the association is fairly modest. The association between current smoking and the incidence of low back pain is stronger in adolescents than in adults.
PubMed ID
20102998 View in PubMed
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Association of modic changes, Schmorl's nodes, spondylolytic defects, high-intensity zone lesions, disc herniations, and radial tears with low back symptom severity among young Finnish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128809
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Jun 15;37(14):1231-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2012
Author
Jani Takatalo
Jaro Karppinen
Jaakko Niinimäki
Simo Taimela
Pertti Mutanen
Roberto Blanco Sequeiros
Simo Näyhä
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Eero Kyllönen
Osmo Tervonen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. janitaka@mail.student.oulu.fi
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Jun 15;37(14):1231-9
Date
Jun-15-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Finland
Geography
Humans
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration - complications - diagnosis
Intervertebral Disc Displacement - diagnosis - etiology
Low Back Pain - diagnosis - etiology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods
Pain Measurement
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Severity of Illness Index
Spine - radiography
Spondylolysis - diagnosis - etiology
Young Adult
Abstract
A cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study.
We investigated the association among Modic changes, Schmorl's nodes, spondylolytic defects, high-intensity zone lesions, radial tears, herniations, and low back symptom severity.
Disc degeneration is associated with low back pain in early adulthood, but the associations between other MRI findings and low back pain are not well known.
Questionnaire data and MRI scans (1.5-T) were available for 554 subjects derived from a birth cohort at 21 years of age. Data on low back pain and back-related functional limitations at 18, 19, and 21 years of age were used for clustering of subjects, using latent class analysis. We used logistic regression with adjustment for the degree of disc degeneration to evaluate the associations between specific imaging findings and low back symptom severity.
The prevalence of herniations was 20%, Schmorl's nodes 17%, radial tears 9.9%, high-intensity zone lesions 3.2%, spondylolytic defects 5.8%, and Modic changes 0.7%. Latent class analysis produced 5 clusters: "Always Painful" (n = 65) meant painful at all time points and "Recent Onset Pain" (n = 56) meant increasing symptom severity, whereas subjects in the "Moderately Painful" (n = 73), "Minor Pain" (n = 193), and "No Pain" (n = 167) clusters had fewer symptoms. Compared with the "No Pain" cluster, Schmorl's nodes were more likely to occur in the "Always Painful" cluster (P = 0.017) and herniations in the 3 most painful clusters (P
PubMed ID
22166927 View in PubMed
Less detail

Body mass index is associated with lumbar disc degeneration in young Finnish males: subsample of Northern Finland birth cohort study 1986.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115527
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:87
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Jani Takatalo
Jaro Karppinen
Simo Taimela
Jaakko Niinimäki
Jaana Laitinen
Roberto Blanco Sequeiros
Markus Paananen
Jouko Remes
Simo Näyhä
Tuija Tammelin
Raija Korpelainen
Osmo Tervonen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Oulu, PL 5000, Oulu, 90014, Finland. janitaka@mail.student.oulu.fi
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:87
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Intervertebral Disc Degeneration - diagnosis - epidemiology
Life Style
Logistic Models
Lumbar Vertebrae - pathology
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Motor Activity
Odds Ratio
Physical Examination
Physical Fitness
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The role of environmental factors in lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) in young adults is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether body mass index (BMI), smoking, and physical activity are associated with lumbar DD among young adults.
The Oulu Back Study (OBS) is a subpopulation of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986) and it originally included 2,969 children. The OBS subjects received a postal questionnaire, and those who responded (N?=?1,987) were invited to the physical examination. The participants (N?=?874) were invited to lumbar MRI study. A total of 558 young adults (325 females and 233 males) underwent MRI that used a 1.5-T scanner at the mean age of 21. Each lumbar intervertebral disc was graded as normal (0), mildly (1), moderately (2), or severely (3) degenerated. We calculated a sum score of the lumbar DD, and analyzed the associations between environmental risk factors (smoking, physical activity and weight-related factors assessed at 16 and 19 years) and DD using ordinal logistic regression, the results being expressed as cumulative odds ratios (COR). All analyses were stratified by gender.
Of the 558 subjects, 256 (46%) had no DD, 117 (21%) had sum score of one, 93 (17%) sum score of two, and 92 (17%) sum score of three or higher. In the multivariate ordinal logistic regression model, BMI at 16 years (highest vs. lowest quartile) was associated with DD sum score among males (COR 2.35; 95% CI 1.19-4.65) but not among females (COR 1.29; 95% CI 0.72-2.32). Smoking of at least four pack-years was associated with DD among males, but not among females (COR 2.41; 95% CI 0.99-5.86 and 1.59; 95% 0.67-3.76, respectively). Self-reported physical activity was not associated with DD.
High BMI at 16 years was associated with lumbar DD at 21 years among young males but not among females. High pack-years of smoking showed a comparable association in males, while physical activity had no association with DD in either gender. These results suggest that environmental factors are associated with DD among young males.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23497297 View in PubMed
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Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection increases the risk of occlusion of lumbar segmental arteries of patients with sciatica: a 3-year follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184202
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Aug 1;28(15):E284-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2003
Author
Jaro Karppinen
Paula Mikkonen
Mauno Kurunlahti
Osmo Tervonen
Mika Paldanius
Pekka Vasari
Pekka Saikku
Heikki Vanharanta
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. jaro.karppinen@ttl.fi
Source
Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Aug 1;28(15):E284-9
Date
Aug-1-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Antigen-Antibody Complex - blood
Arterial Occlusive Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Chlamydophila Infections - epidemiology - physiopathology
Chronic Disease
Comorbidity
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Lumbosacral Region - blood supply - physiopathology
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Risk
Risk assessment
Sciatica - epidemiology - microbiology - physiopathology
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Abstract
A magnetic resonance imaging follow-up study of lumbar arteries among patients with sciatica with chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.
To determine whether chronic infection causes occlusion of lumbar arteries.
C. pneumoniae infection is associated with coronary heart disease, and the infectious pathogen has also been detected in abdominal aortic aneurysms and in atherosclerotic plaques. No studies are available on the effect of this infectious agent on lumbar arteries.
Chronic infection was defined as persistent high positive immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin A antibodies and/or the presence of immune complexes. The lumbar arteries, evaluated with two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, were scored as normal, narrowed, or occluded. The differences in the segmental and whole lumbar spine (segments L1-L4) sum of arterial occlusion at baseline and at 3 years, and the incidence of new arterial stenosis were compared in patients with and without chronic infection using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Patients with chronic infection were more likely to be persistent smokers (P = 0.006), male (P = 0.04), and more obese (P = 0.02) compared to patients with normal antibody levels. They had significantly higher degree of arterial stenosis at L4 segment at baseline and at 3 years (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), in the whole lumbar spine at baseline and at 3 years (P
PubMed ID
12897506 View in PubMed
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