Advanced glycation end products (AGE) accumulate in human tissue proteins during aging, particularly under hyperglycemia conditions. AGEs induce oxidative stress and inflammation via the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) can neutralize the effects mediated by RAGE-ligand engagement.
We examined the association between N(e)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a prominent AGE, and sRAGE and colorectal cancer risk in a prospective case-cohort study nested within a cancer prevention trial among 29,133 Finnish male smokers. Among study subjects who were alive without cancer 5 years after baseline (1985-1988), we identified 483 incident colorectal cancer cases and randomly sampled 485 subcohort participants as the comparison group with the follow-up to April 2006. Baseline serum levels of CML-AGE, sRAGE, glucose and insulin were determined. Weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% CI.
Comparing highest with lowest quintile of sRAGE, the RR for incident colorectal cancer was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.39-1.07; P(trend) = 0.03), adjusting for age, years of smoking, body mass index, and CML-AGE. Further adjustment for serum glucose strengthened the association (RR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.89; P(trend) = 0.009). Highest quintile of CML-AGE was not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate RR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.64-2.26).
Higher prediagnostic levels of serum sRAGE were associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer in male smokers.
This is the first epidemiologic study to implicate the receptor for AGEs in colorectal cancer development.
Cites: J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 Aug;16(8):2363-7215930093
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1043:725-3316037299
To compare the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) IgG and IgA antibodies between adult subjects, with defined gastric diseases, non-defined gastric disorders and those representing the population.
Data on H pylori IgG and IgA antibodies, determined by enzyme immunoassay, were analyzed in 3,252 subjects with DGD including 482 patients with gastric ulcer, 882 patients with duodenal ulcer, 1,525 patients with chronic gastritis only and 363 subjects with subsequent gastric cancer, 19,145 patients with NoDg and 4,854 POPUL subjects. The age-adjusted prevalences were calculated for 1- and 20-year age cohorts.
The prevalences of IgG antibodies were equally high (89-96%) in all 20-year age cohorts of the DGD groups, whereas the prevalences of IgG antibodies were lower and increased by age in the POPUL and NoDg groups. The prevalences of IgA antibodies were also higher in the DGD groups; among them CA (84-89%) and GU groups (78-91%) showed significantly higher prevalences than DU (68-77%) and CG patients (59-74%) (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.86-3.34 between the GU and DU groups). In the CA, GU, and DU groups, the IgA prevalences showed only minor variation according to age, while they increased by age in the CG, POPUL, and NoDg groups (P
Our aim was examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of total stroke and stroke types in a prospective study.
A total of 74,961 Swedish women and men who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1997 were followed up through December 2008. Tea consumption was assessed with a questionnaire at baseline. Stroke cases were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry.
During a mean follow-up of 10.2 years, we ascertained 4089 cases of first stroke, including 3159 cerebral infarctions, 435 intracerebral hemorrhages, 148 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 347 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other risk factors, high tea consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of total stroke; however, there was no dose-response relation (P for trend = .36). Compared with no tea consumption, the multivariable relative risk for four or more cups per day (median, 5) was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.998). The corresponding relative risks were 0.80 (95% CI, 0.61-1.04) for cerebral infarction and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.35-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke.
These findings suggest that daily consumption of four or more cups of black tea is inversely associated with risk of stroke.
A total of 29,133 male smokers, aged 50-69 years, were recruited into the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study in 1984-1988. The nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) recorded 5944 incident cases of cancer in this cohort through the end of 1999. Compared with the FCR data of the entire Finnish male population of same age the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of total cancer in the ATBC cohort was 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-1.59]. There was a significant excess of established smoking-related malignancies, such as lung cancer (SIR 2.45, 95% CI 2.35-2.56), and cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, pancreas, stomach, liver, urinary bladder and kidney. In addition to these sites, cancers of the prostate and colon were slightly more common in the ATBC cohort than in the total Finnish male population (SIR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.18 and SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1.00-1.30, respectively). In conclusion, the risk of many cancers was significantly higher in the ATBC Study cohort compared with the total Finnish male population of same age. In addition to the well known smoking-related cancers, cigarette smoking may increase slightly the risk of colon and prostate cancer, too.
Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene (CHRNA5/CHRNA3 locus) have been associated with several smoking related traits such as nicotine dependence, cigarette consumption, smoking cessation, lung cancer, and COPD. The aim of this candidate gene study was to study the locus among the Finnish COPD patients and long-term smokers with regard to COPD risk, smoking behavior, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Genotyping of rs1051730, the locus tagging SNP was done in two longitudinal cohorts: Finnish COPD patients (N = 575, 74% men) and long-term smokers, all men (N = 1911). Finnish population sample (N = 1730) was used as controls. The analyses were done using logistic and Cox regression. The main findings were that the minor allele increased the risk of COPD when compared to the Finnish population at large (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p = 3.2 × 10-5). Homozygosity for the risk allele was associated in both cohorts with all-cause mortality (crude HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.8 and 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, respectively), with any type of cancer (crude OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.1) among the COPD patients and with the number of pack-years (crude OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) among the male smokers. CHRNA5/CHRNA3 locus tagged by rs1051730, which has been previously associated with several smoking related diseases was now shown to be associated also with increased all-cause mortality among long-term smokers with or without clinical COPD further emphasizing the clinical importance of the finding.
Relative risks for lung and bladder cancers by smoking intensity level off at more than 15-20 cigarettes per day. A three-parameter excess relative risk model in pack-years and intensity quantified this leveling (Lubin et al., Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:479-89). Above 15-20 cigarettes per day was an "inverse exposure rate" effect whereby, for equal pack-years, the excess relative risk/pack-year decreased with increasing intensity; that is, smoking at a lower intensity for a longer duration was more deleterious than smoking at a higher intensity for a shorter duration. After adjustment for pack-years, intensity effects were quantitatively homogeneous across multiple case-control studies of lung, bladder, oral cavity, pancreas, and esophagus cancers. The authors extended those analyses to examine intensity patterns for incident bladder, esophagus, kidney, larynx, liver, lung, oropharynx, and pancreas cancers by using data from a single prospective cohort in Finland, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, with follow-up from enrollment, which occurred between 1985 and 1988, through April 2004. At more than 10 cigarettes per day, they found an inverse exposure rate pattern for each cancer site. After adjustment for pack-years, intensity effects were quantitatively homogeneous across the diverse cancer sites and homogeneous with intensity effects from the prior analysis of multiple studies. Consistency of intensity patterns suggested a general phenomenon and may provide clues to the molecular basis of smoking-related cancer risk.
Coffee and tea consumption could potentially reduce the risk of stroke because these beverages have antioxidant properties, and coffee may improve insulin sensitivity. We examined the associations of coffee and tea consumption with risk of stroke subtypes.
We used prospective data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a cohort study of 26 556 male Finnish smokers aged 50 to 69 years without a history of stroke at baseline. Coffee and tea consumption was assessed at baseline using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 years, from 1985 through December 2004, 2702 cerebral infarctions, 383 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 196 subarachnoid hemorrhages were ascertained from national registries.
After adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors, both consumption of coffee and tea was statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of cerebral infarction but not intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The multivariate relative risk of cerebral infarction for men in the highest category of coffee consumption (>/=8 cups/d) was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.90; P for trend /=2 cups/d) with those in the lowest category (nondrinkers) was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.92; P for trend=0.002).
These results suggest that high consumption of coffee and tea may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction among men, independent of known cardiovascular risk factors.
Coffee consumption has been inconsistently associated with stroke incidence and mortality in previous studies. We investigated the association between coffee consumption and stroke incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort.
We prospectively followed of 34,670 women without a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline in 1997. Coffee consumption was assessed in 1997 using a self-administered questionnaire. Incident stroke cases were ascertained from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry.
During a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, we ascertained 1680 stroke events, including 1310 cerebral infarctions, 154 intracerebral hemorrhages, 79 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 137 unspecified strokes. After adjustment for other risk factors, coffee consumption was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of total stroke, cerebral infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage but not intracerebral hemorrhage. The multivariable relative risks of total stroke across categories of coffee consumption (