The present study characterized the associations of three sex life issues (importance of, satisfaction with, and ease in talking about sex life) with social support and reciprocity. We utilised survey data of working-aged men and women (n = 21,101) from the population-based random sample of the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) Study (40% response). The respondents with abundant social support considered sex life important, were satisfied with it, and found it easy to talk about sex life more often than those with less social support. Social support in sex life offered by one's own spouse/partner was important particularly to women, not available from the other sources to the same extent. Friends functioned as significant positive sources of support in sex life particularly among women, but relatives did not. Mutual reciprocity was associated with favourable perceptions of sex life. Persons lacking established primary social support should have easy access to services.
Studies exploring the effects of childhood adversities and parent-child relationship on adulthood dispositional optimism are rather rare, have been performed on small, selected samples and lack analyses of interaction between childhood factors.
A total of 19970 working-aged Finns responded to the population-based HeSSup Study baseline questionnaire in 1998. The level of dispositional optimism (measured with the LOT-R scale) was analyzed according to self-reported childhood adversities, childhood parent-child relationships and their interaction, using multivariate linear regression analysis methods. A number of potential confounding factors (education, living alone, recent life events, somatic health and depressive mood) were taken into account.
Childhood adversities were associated with decreasing optimism in a dose-response manner. Good parent-child relationships were associated with increasing optimism, with a partial buffering effect when confronting adversities.
Those reporting childhood adversities and poor parent-child relationships had less optimistic expectations, which may need to be addressed in clinical settings.
To compare primary healthcare (PHC) provided by an independent not-for-profit organization (INPO) with that provided by two public municipal organizations (MO1 and MO2), in terms of clients' perceptions of performance, acceptance, and trust.
A survey using a pre-tested questionnaire to all clients visiting a health centre (HC) doctor or nurse during one week in 2000 (n = 511, 51% response rate) and 2002 (n = 275, 47%). The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and cumulative logistic regression analysis.
The INPO differed from both publicly provided services in accessibility, consistency of service, and outcomes. Clients reported lower trust in HC provided by public organizations compared with the INPO. Trust was higher if clients also reported experiencing "very good" or "moderate" organizational access--or if general satisfaction was "very high" or "moderate" or if they experienced outcomes as "very good" or "moderate" compared with the "very poor or low" situation. Women reported lower trust in HC than men. When the family doctor was included in the same logistic regression model with the service provider, only the family doctor was a significant explanatory variable. Reported acceptance of private alternative service providers among clients was similar between the study organizations.
Clients of the INPO generally rated the service more positively than clients of publicly provided services. The results indicate that trust in HC depends more on a family doctor system than a service provider.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to understanding which factors influence health promotion action in primary health care (PHC) on the municipal, i.e. local, level.
A cross-sectional mail survey of all PHC personnel in four municipalities in Finland in 2002. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
A total of 417 (response rate 57%) healthcare professionals participated in the study; 65% of the personnel working in ambulatory care, 52% working in home care and 44% working in inpatient care were engaged in health promotion action (=higher than median engagement). Factors independently associated with engagement in health promotion were organizational values, reflected in perceived skill discretion and social support from coworkers, and the personnel's competence, reflected in knowledge about the health and living conditions of the population served. Further, the opportunities, reflected in cooperation with partners outside the organization were strongly associated with engagement in health promotion action.
The results suggest that working conditions such as possibilities for skill usage, reflection and development as well as collegial support enable higher engagement in health promotion action in PHC. However, access to data on the local population's health and living conditions, in addition to opportunities to cooperate with decision makers and partners in the community turned out to be as important. This should be taken into consideration when striving to reorient health services to health promotion.
To investigate whether the development of job involvement of primary healthcare (PHC) employees in Southern Municipality (SM), where PHC services were outsourced to an independent non-profit organisation, differed from that in the three comparison municipalities (M1, M2, M3) with municipal service providers. Also, the associations of job involvement with factors describing the psychosocial work environment were investigated.
A panel mail survey 2000-02 in Finland (n=369, response rates 73% and 60%). The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate linear regression analysis.
Despite the favourable development in the psychosocial work environment, job involvement decreased most in SM, which faced the biggest organisational changes. Job involvement decreased also in M3, where the psychosocial work environment deteriorated most. Job involvement in 2002 was best predicted by high baseline level of interactional justice and work control, positive change in interactional justice, and higher age. Also other factors, such as organisational stability, seemed to play a role; after controlling for the effect of the psychosocial work characteristics, job involvement was higher in M3 than in SM.
Outsourcing of PHC services may decrease job involvement at least during the first years. A particular service provision model is better than the others only if it is superior in providing a favourable and stable psychosocial work environment.
To investigate whether outsourcing of primary health care (PHC) services has affected the psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion.
Panel mail study 2000-2002 in Finland, 369 PHC employees. Comparison between Southern municipality (SM) after outsourcing PHC services to a not-for-profit organization and three municipalities with municipal service providers.
Despite the positive development of the psychosocial work environment in SM, emotional exhaustion had increased there like in the comparison municipalities. However, in 2002 emotional exhaustion was at a lower level in SM than in one of the comparison municipalities. This difference could not be attributed to the production model itself but rather to baseline levels and changes in work demands and work resources.
Outsourcing of PHC services may improve employee health and thus effectiveness of health care if a new service provider emphasizes employee health more than a previous one and is more flexible to improve the quality of the psychosocial work environment. However, change itself may be stressful, and frequent changes of service providers should be avoided.
The purpose of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), Psychoeducative Group Therapy (PeGT), and treatment as usual (TAU) for patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in municipal psychiatric secondary care in one Finnish region.
All adult patients (N?=?1515) with MDD symptoms referred to secondary care in 2004-2006 were screened. Eligible, consenting patients were assigned randomly to 10-week IPT (N?=?46), PeGT (N?=?42), or TAU (N?=?46) treatment arms. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy among study participants was evaluated. The Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HAM-D) was the primary outcome measure. Assessment occurred at 1, 5, 3, 6, and 12 months. Actual amount of therapists' labor was also evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed with R software.
All three treatment cells showed marked improvement at 12-month follow-up. At 3 months, 42 % in IPT, 61 % in PeGT, and 42 % in TAU showed a mean =50 % in HAM-D improvement; after 12 months, these values were 61 %, 76 %, and 68 %. Concomitant medication and limited sample size minimized between-treatment differences. Statistically significant differences emerged only between PeGT and TAU favoring PeGT. Secondary outcome measures (CGI-s and SOFAS) showed parallel results.
All three treatments notably benefited highly comorbid MDD patients in a public sector secondary care unit.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02314767 (09.12.2014).
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The risk factors underlying coronary heart disease (CHD) are well known.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors related to secondary prevention of working-age CHD patients.
CHD patients with (n = 139) and without (n = 203) myocardial infarction were selected from a postal questionnaire study (n = 21 101) of randomly selected Finns aged 20-54 years (HeSSup study). Four age- and sex-matched controls were chosen for every patient.
CHD patients still smoke, are obese and suffer hangovers more frequently than the control population.
The health care system has not succeeded in the secondary prevention of CHD.
To characterize the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with background variables.
Questionnaire was mailed to population-based samples (n=5510, 70% response) of soon-to-be-menopausal (aged 42-46 years) and menopausal (aged 52-56 years) women.
Being married/having a spouse meant more sexual activity for both groups but also the likelihood to experience lack of sexual desire. Hormones emerged as the most important perceived reason for lack of sexual desire.
The findings indicated a discrepancy between the reported frequencies of sexual experiences/orgasms with spouse and lack of desire.
An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS) and performance impairment (PI) are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI.
Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response) stratified according to age (42-46 and 52-56 years). In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well.
Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42-46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women.
NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.
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