OBJECTIVE: We studied the association between speech development in the first year of life and alexithymia in young adulthood. METHODS: The study forms a part of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. The original material consisted of all liveborn children in the provinces of Lapland and Oulu in Finland with an expected delivery date during 1966. The comprehensive data collection began during the antenatal phase. In 1997, a 31-year follow-up study was made on a part of the initial sample. The 20-item version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was given to 5983 subjects. Of them, 84% returned the questionnaire properly filled in. The ability to talk was classified according to whether the child spoke no words, one or two words, or three or more words at the age of 1 year. Statistical analyses on the association between the ability to speak at the age of 1 year and alexithymia at the age of 31 years were performed, adjusted for birth weight, mother's parity, place of residence and wantedness of pregnancy. RESULTS: The mean of the total TAS score was lowest among early speakers and for both genders separately. The differences were statistically significant. A parallel significant difference was found among males on TAS Factors 2 and 3 and in case of females on TAS Factors 1 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an association between speaking development in early childhood and later alexithymia. Our results support the theory that alexithymia may be a developmental process starting in early childhood and reinforcing itself in a social context.
Diabetes is undiagnosed disease and easy screening tools for it are warranted. Because foot complications are usual in diabetes, we aimed to test hypothesis that skin abnormalities are found already from patients who are not aware of having diabetes, by studying the possible association between unhealthy toe web skin and abnormal glucose metabolism. 1,849 cases without previously diagnosed diabetes participated to the 46-year follow-up study of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. A skin investigation was performed for all, and abnormal skin findings in toe web spaces were taken as explanatory variables. Abnormal glucose tolerance was the main outcome and it was tested with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated haemoglobin fraction (HbA1c) Values are numbers (percentages) of sub and fasting blood glucose. The participants who had any abnormal skin findings in toe webs were associated with 2.5-fold (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9) and 6-fold (OR 6.2, 1.4-27.6) increased risk of having previously undiagnosed diabetes detected by a 2-hour OGTT and HbA1c, respectively. The predictive power of toe web findings was comparable with FINDRISC score. Abnormal skin findings in the toe webs show increased risk of occult diabetes, and may, thus serve as an additional sign of undiagnosed diabetes.
Inflammation plays a significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Increased adiposity with an upregulation of cytokines in prediabetes has been associated with vascular inflammation and considered a leading causal factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Information on adipokines and inflammatory markers in prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) 5.7-6.4% in addition to impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are sparse. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study (part of a follow-up study) of inhabitants of Oulu, Finland, born in 1935. Inflammatory markers and traditional risk markers of 367 subjects were measured. The glucose status was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c. Inflammatory markers and glycemic levels were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Of the participants, 193 were normoglycemic, 82 had prediabetes and 40 T2D. Inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in subjects with prediabetes as compared to normoglycemic subjects: IL-4 (14.9 vs 5.9?pg/ml, p?=?0.041), IP-10 (251 vs 209?pg/ml, p?=?0.05), TNF-a (10.4 vs 6.9?pg/ml, p?=?0.027), RANTES (43.3 vs 33.1?pg/ml, p?=?0.009), CD40L (3708 vs 1671?pg/ml, p?=?0.010) and VEGF (269 vs 174?pg/ml, p?=?0.013). These inflammatory cytokines remained significant even after adjustment for waist circumference. The differences in inflammatory markers in prediabetic and T2D subjects were not statistically significant. Prediabetes was associated with low-grade inflammation with increased inflammatory cytokine levels, while the levels in prediabetic subjects were comparable to those in T2D subjects. The associations were independent of visceral adiposity.
To examine the association between aerobic performance and body composition changes by body mass index (BMI).
6-12 months' follow-up during military service.
Conscripts entering military service in 2005 in Sodankyl? Jaeger Brigade (Finland).
945 men (19 years, SD 1 years).
Height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, and aerobic performance (Cooper test) were recorded. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The measured parameters were fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), and visceral fat area (VFA). All the measurements were performed at the beginning and end of service.
On average, the military training period improved the running distance by 6.8% (169 m, p
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2000 Apr;18(3 Suppl):147-5510736551
Cites: Sports Med. 2010 Nov 1;40(11):907-2020942508
OBJECTIVE: Early age at menarche has been found to be associated with higher oestrogen levels among girls around the onset of puberty and in early adulthood. The role of oestrogen in depression is not clear, although it affects serotonergic functions in the central nervous system (CNS). We wanted to test the hypothesis that age at menarche is associated with depression in young adulthood. METHODS: The material consisted of 3952 women born in 1966 in Northern Finland. Depression was defined by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), the use of antidepressants and by self-reported lifetime depression diagnosed by physician. Menarcheal age was divided as 9-11, 12-15 and 16 years or over. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was 1.8-fold in current depression, 2.8-fold in the use of antidepressants and 2.1-fold in self-reported physician-diagnosed depression in women with menarche at the age of 16 years or later. After adjusting for confounders, the significant positive association between current depression and late menarche remained, but the use of antidepressants and depression diagnosed by physician had not statistically significant association with the age of menarche. CONCLUSION: A possible explanation for the result may be oestrogen as a protective factor against depression.
To evaluate the influences of alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking on changes in the body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness of healthy young men during military service.
A population-based study of men performing their military service in the Sodankylä Jaeger Brigade, Finland in 2005. Body composition, fitness and lifestyle habits were evaluated at baseline and 6-12 months follow-up. Alcohol consumption frequency and binge drinking were categorized as: 'not at all', 'at least once a month' and 'at least once a week'.
Data were available for 983 participants. Mean (SD) age was 19.2 (1.0) years. At baseline, participants who reported binge drinking at least once a week (29.8%) had the most unfavourable body composition, lifestyle habits and physical fitness compared with the group with no binge drinking. Significant (P
To investigate whether depressive episodes (previous, current single, and recurrent) are associated in both genders with highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, earlier recommended for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease. The impact of the severity of current single and recurrent depressive episodes on this putative association was also investigated.
The genetically homogeneous Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort was followed until age 31, when, in a cross-sectional setting (n = 5269), the highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (hs-EIA) method was used to measure CRP concentration. Depressive episodes were defined through mailed questionnaires, including Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) and information on self-reported, doctor-diagnosed depression.
After adjusting for confounders, logistic regression analyses showed that in male subjects, elevated hs-CRP levels (> or =1.0 mg/L) increased the probability for severe current and recurrent depressive episodes 1.7-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively. Correspondingly, an hs-CRP level of >3.0 mg/L increased the probability for recurrent depression up to 4.1-fold. In female subjects, no statistically significant associations were found.
Our results support the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes may contribute to the pathophysiology of severe depression in men. Further investigations are needed regarding the impact of our findings on diagnostic/treatment strategies concerning severe and, especially recurrent, depression in men.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms and testosterone levels among middle-aged men at the community level.
The study population consisted of 614 men born in 1945 and living in the city of Oulu, Finland. Erectile dysfunction was assessed by the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire and depressive symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory. Blood samples were collected to measure testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin level.
After adjusting for confounders, erectile dysfunction was statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms (risk ratio (RR) 1.66, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.29-2.15), as well as with obesity (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.62). Neither total nor free testosterone level was associated with erectile dysfunction among our study group.
Depressive symptoms rather than testosterone levels should be taken into consideration while treating middle-aged men with erectile problems at the community level.
We examined the risk of hospital-treated injuries related to the symptoms/diagnosis of ADHD.
The study population (N = 6,111) was composed from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. At the age of 8, symptoms of hyperactivity and at the age of 15, symptoms of ADHD were assessed by the parents while the clinical diagnoses of ADHD were set in adolescence. Information on injuries was obtained from national register.
The risk for hospital-treated injuries during ages 0 to 7 was 1.7-fold increased among those with symptoms of hyperactivity assessed at age 8. Also, injuries during ages 7 to 15 years were more common among those with symptoms of ADHD at age 15 with respect to any injury, fractures, and intracranial injuries, and among those with the diagnosis of ADHD with respect to any injury.
The present study shows an association between hospital-treated injuries and symptoms of ADHD in a large epidemiological sample of 0- to 15-year-old children.
The aim of the present study was to assess soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L) levels in relation to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) at population level.
This study is part of a prospective, population-based cohort study, carried out from 1990 to 2008 in northern Finland. Study members, born in 1935 and living in the City of Oulu, underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and measurement of plasma sCD40L at three different time points during the 15-year follow-up. The total number of study members who underwent OGTT was 768 at the baseline, 557 at the first and 467 at the second follow-up. SCD40L levels in patients with IGT were compared with those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (non-IGT).
Geometric mean level of sCD40L was significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the non-IGT group at the baseline (0.42 vs. 0.27 ng/mL) and at the first follow-up (1.50 vs. 0.36 ng/mL) (repeated measures mixed models ANOVA, p