In this study of victims of sexual abuse, the aim was to investigate the role of perceived social support and abuse characteristics in self-reported insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Four hundred sixty Norwegian victims of sexual abuse completed a questionnaire assessing perceived social support, abuse characteristics, insomnia, nightmare frequency, and nightmare distress. Results show that higher levels of perceived social support were related to lower scores on all symptom outcome measures. Abuse involving oral, genital, or anal penetration was related to more insomnia symptoms. Longer duration of abuse and threatening conducted by the perpetrator were related to higher nightmare frequency, while threats and abuse involving penetration were related to higher degrees of distress associated with nightmares. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary data indicating that perceived social support may affect the nature of sleep difficulties in sexual abuse victims. Also, more severe forms of sexual abuse are related to higher levels of sleep difficulties.
A significant number of adolescents have been exposed to traumatic life events. However, knowledge about the specific sleep disturbance that occurs in individuals after trauma exposure is predominantly based on studies of adults. This study reports specific sleep disturbance in 42 survivors of the 2011 mass shooting at a youth summer camp on the Norwegian island Utøya, mean age = 20.91 years, SD = 2.32, 62.5% females. When compared with matched controls, significantly more survivors reported having sleep disturbances, 52.4% versus 13.6%, d = 0.93, of which onset began at the time of the shooting, ?2 = 14.9, p 1.7, ps = .044 to .028. These results corroborate the effects of a life threat on the range and extent of sleep disturbances, and emphasize the need to better assess and treat sleep disorders in adolescents exposed to trauma.
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Bergen, Christiesgate 12, 5015 Bergen, Norway; Visiting Scholar, UC Berkeley, Department of Psychology, 4123 Tolman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1690, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
In the present study, our aim was to examine longitudinal posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) trajectories in a Norwegian sample of adults who had experienced sexual abuse during childhood, and to identify predictors of PTSS-trajectory belongingness. The sample consisted of 138 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (96.4% women, mean age=42.9years, mean age at the first abuse=5.9 years), recruited from support centers for sexual abuse survivors. The majority (78.3%) reported penetrative abuse, and a large proportion of the sample reported that the perpetrator was a biological parent (38.4%) or someone they trusted (76.1%), reflecting a high severity level of the abusive experiences. Latent Profile Analyses revealed the best overall fit for a two PTSS-trajectories model; one trajectory characterized by sub-clinical and decreasing level of PTSS (54.9%), and the other by high and slightly decreasing level of PTSS (45.1%). Increased odds for belonging to the trajectory with clinical level symptoms was found among those who reported higher levels of exposure to other types of childhood maltreatment (OR=3.69, p=0.002), sexual abuse enforced by physical violence (OR=3.04, p=0.003) or threats (OR=2.56, p=0.014), very painful sexual abuse (OR=2.73, p=0.007), or who had experienced intense anxiety, helplessness or fear during the abuse (OR=2.97, p=0.044). Those in the trajectory with clinical level PTSS reported lower levels of perceived social support and more relational difficulties compared to those in the sub-clinical PTSS trajectory. In conclusion, different longitudinal PTSS trajectories can be found among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Significant predictors of PTSS-trajectory belongingness are discussed alongside their potential implications for preventive efforts and clinical interventions.
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been shown to reduce pain and improve function. In addition, it is suggested that THA improves sleep and alleviates symptoms of anxiety and depression. Patients with chronic pain are frequent users of analgesic and psychotropic drugs and thereby risk adverse drug events. The impact of THA on such drug use has not been thoroughly investigated. Based on merged data from the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, this study sought to investigate redeemed medications in a complete population (N = 39,688) undergoing THA in 2005 to 2011. User rates and redeemed drug volume of analgesics (nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and nonopioids) and psychotropics (hypnotics, anxiolytics, and antidepressants) were calculated for 4 quarters before and 4 quarters after surgery. We analysed preoperative prescription trends (Q1 vs Q4), postoperative prescription (Q4 vs Q5), and long-term effect of surgery (Q4 vs Q8). Before surgery, use of all drug groups increased from Q1 to Q4. Use of opioids, nonopioids, and hypnotics dramatically increased from Q4 to Q5. Long-term (Q4 vs Q8) surgery reduced prescriptions of analgesics, hypnotics, and anxiolytics, but not antidepressants. Overall, the present results extend the positive effects of THA to include reduced reliance on medication to alleviate symptoms.
This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
To estimate lifetime and current prevalence (defined as having experienced the specific parasomnia at least once during the last 3 months) of different parasomnias in the general population. In addition, to study the relationship between the different parasomnias and gender, depressive mood, and symptoms of sleep apnea, insomnia and restless legs, as well as estimating the prevalence of having multiple parasomnias.
Population based cross-sectional study. One thousand randomly selected adults (51% female), 18years and above, participated in a telephone interview in Norway.
Lifetime prevalence of the different parasomnias varied from about 4% to 67%. For sleep walking lifetime prevalence was 22.4% and current prevalence 1.7%. For the other parasomnias, lifetime and current prevalence were as follows: sleep talking 66.8% and 17.7%, confusional arousal 18.5% and 6.9%, sleep terror 10.4% and 2.7%, injured yourself during sleep 4.3% and 0.9%, injured somebody else during sleep 3.8% and 0.4%, sexual acts during sleep 7.1% and 2.7%, nightmare 66.2% and 19.4%, dream enactment 15.0% and 5.0%, sleep related groaning 31.3% and 13.5%, and sleep-related eating 4.5% and 2.2%. Depressive mood was associated with confusional arousal, sleep terror, sleep-related injury, and nightmare. There were few associations between the parasomnias and gender and symptoms of sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs, respectively. About 12% reported having five or more parasomnias.
This is one of few population based studies investigating the prevalence of parasomnias. Several parasomnias were highly prevalent in the general population. The data need to be interpreted with caution due to methodological issues, i.e., low response rate and single questions.
The "Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire" (BSWSQ) was developed to systematically assess discrete sleep problems related to different work shifts (day, evening, night shifts) and rest days. In this study, we assessed the psychometric properties of the BSWSQ using a sample of 760 nurses, all working in a three-shift rotation schedule: day, evening, and night shifts. BSWSQ measures insomnia symptoms using seven questions: >30-min sleep onset latency, >30-min wake after sleep onset, >30-min premature awakenings, nonrestorative sleep, being tired/sleepy at work, during free time on work days, and when not working/on vacation. Symptoms are assessed separately for each work shift and rest days, as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," "often," "always," or "not applicable." We investigated the BSWSQ model fit, reliability (test-retest of a subsample, n = 234), and convergent and discriminant validity between the BSWSQ and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. We also investigated differences in mean scores between the different insomnia symptoms with respect to different work shifts and rest days. BSWSQ demonstrated an adequate model fit using structural equation modeling: root mean square error of approximation =?.071 (90% confidence interval [CI]?=?.066-.076), comparative fit index =?.91, and chi-square/degrees of freedom = 4.41. The BSWSQ demonstrated good reliability (test-retest coefficients p