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Budget impact analysis of trastuzumab in early breast cancer: a hospital district perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144209
Source
Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2010 Apr;26(2):163-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Timo T Purmonen
Päivi K Auvinen
Janne A Martikainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Pharmacy, Center for Pharmaceutical Policy and Economics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. timo.purmonen@uef.fi
Source
Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2010 Apr;26(2):163-9
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Monoclonal - economics - therapeutic use
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antineoplastic Agents - economics - therapeutic use
Breast Neoplasms - drug therapy
Budgets
Computer simulation
Costs and Cost Analysis - methods
Economics, Medical
Female
Finland
Hospitals, District - economics
Humans
Abstract
Adjuvant trastuzumab is widely used in HER2-positive (HER2+) early breast cancer, and despite its cost-effectiveness, it causes substantial costs for health care. The purpose of the study was to develop a tool for estimating the budget impact of new cancer treatments. With this tool, we were able to estimate the budget impact of adjuvant trastuzumab, as well as the probability of staying within a given budget constraint.
The created model-based evaluation tool was used to explore the budget impact of trastuzumab in early breast cancer in a single Finnish hospital district with 250,000 inhabitants. The used model took into account the number of patients, HER2+ prevalence, length and cost of treatment, and the effectiveness of the therapy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis and alternative case scenarios were performed to ensure the robustness of the results.
Introduction of adjuvant trastuzumab caused substantial costs for a relatively small hospital district. In base-case analysis the 4-year net budget impact was 1.3 million euro. The trastuzumab acquisition costs were partially offset by the reduction in costs associated with the treatment of cancer recurrence and metastatic disease.
Budget impact analyses provide important information about the overall economic impact of new treatments, and thus offer complementary information to cost-effectiveness analyses. Inclusion of treatment outcomes and probabilistic sensitivity analysis provides more realistic estimates of the net budget impact. The length of trastuzumab treatment has a strong effect on the budget impact.
PubMed ID
20392319 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cost-effectiveness of single agent, uptitration and switching statin treatment strategies for lipid lowering in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146775
Source
Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Feb;26(2):389-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Janne A Martikainen
Erkki Soini
Thomas Paulsson
Author Affiliation
ESiOR Oy, P.O. Box 1188, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. janne.martikainen@esior.fi
Source
Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Feb;26(2):389-96
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Cardiovascular Diseases - economics - prevention & control
Computer simulation
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Health Planning Guidelines
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - administration & dosage - economics
Hyperlipidemias - drug therapy - economics
Hypolipidemic Agents - administration & dosage - economics
Models, Econometric
Retrospective Studies
Sweden
Treatment Outcome
Withholding Treatment
Abstract
To assess which alternative treatment strategies are optimum in terms of cost-effectiveness (EUR/patient treated to target, EUR/PTT) in lowering cholesterol in high-risk patients with elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in Sweden.
A probabilistic cost-effectiveness model was developed to estimate the mean expected costs and proportion of patients reaching goal attainment (defined as LDL-C Simva20 --> Simva40, Rosu10, Simva20 --> Rosu10 --> Rosu20 --> Rosu40, or Simva20 --> Simva40 --> Rosu20 --> Rosu40). An important finding was that when LDL-C level exceed 4.0 mmol/L (154mg/dL) and when willingness to pay is less than 500 EUR per additional PTT, the optimal treatment strategy would be to initiate cholesterol-lowering treatment directly with rosuvastatin 10 mg.
The results of this study indicate that the optimal approach to initiate lipid-lowering therapy would be to treat patients with the lower baseline LDL-C levels with the least costly treatment strategies, while initiating lipid-lowering treatment with a high-potency statin (rosuvastatin) in patients with moderately high or high baseline LDL-C levels. This recommendation can be assumed to be relevant particularly when the fact that after treatment initiation the majority of Swedish patients will not have any changes in their lipid-lowering medication or dose is taken into account. Finally, since only the short-term results are presented here, it would be valuable to conduct further studies of the long-term cost-effectiveness of different statin treatment strategies that focus on treatment persistence and LDL-C goal attainment in real practice.
PubMed ID
20001451 View in PubMed
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Costs and quality of life effects of the first year of renal replacement therapy in one Finnish treatment centre.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149967
Source
J Med Econ. 2009 Jun;12(2):136-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2009
Author
Taru Hallinen
Erkki J O Soini
Janne A Martikainen
Risto Ikäheimo
Olli-Pekka Ryynänen
Author Affiliation
Kuopio University Hospital, Unit of Family Practice, Finland. taru.hallinen@esior.fi
Source
J Med Econ. 2009 Jun;12(2):136-40
Date
Jun-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Centers - utilization
Costs and Cost Analysis
Female
Finland
Humans
Kidney Failure, Chronic - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Renal Dialysis - economics
Abstract
The main objective of the study was to assess the cost and quality of life (QoL) effects of elective dialysis patients during the first year of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treatment in one Finnish treatment centre.
A prospective case-series study was performed involving all elective dialysis patients (n=29) in a Finnish dialysis unit during 2003-2004. Direct costs of ESRD treatment were obtained from the hospital database and the Social Insurance Institution. The QoL effects were measured at the initiation of treatment, at 6 and at 12 months using 15D, a generic QoL instrument.
The average cost of ESRD treatment was 69,085 euro. The improvement in the patients' QoL score was statistically and clinically significant during the first treatment year. The most significant changes were seen in the dimensions of breathing and vitality. The condition of patients commencing haemodialysis (HD) was more severe than that of patients commencing peritoneal dialysis (PD) as indicated by worse residual kidney function and poorer quality of life at the initiation.
In this small patient population, treatment of ESRD during the first year seemed to improve or maintain the QoL of the patients.
PubMed ID
19566482 View in PubMed
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Depressed Spousal Caregivers Have Psychological Stress Unrelated to the Progression of Alzheimer Disease: A 3-Year Follow-Up Report, Kuopio ALSOVA Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272514
Source
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2015 Dec;28(4):272-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Tarja H Välimäki
Janne A Martikainen
Ilona T Hallikainen
Saku T Väätäinen
Anne M Koivisto
Source
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2015 Dec;28(4):272-80
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - psychology
Caregivers - psychology
Depression - psychology
Disease Progression
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Spouses - psychology
Stress, Psychological
Time Factors
Abstract
To explore family caregiver (FC) long-term psychological distress after Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis in a family member.
FC (n = 236) and patients with AD were prospectively followed up to 36 months after AD diagnosis. FC psychological distress was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Furthermore, caregiver depressive symptoms and sense of coherence, along with AD patient measurements, were measured at baseline and annually. Generalized estimating equation models were applied to study associations of these baseline factors to caregiver GHQ.
After 36 months of follow-up, spousal caregivers (SCs) GHQ was significantly higher (P
PubMed ID
26251107 View in PubMed
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Economic evaluation of sunitinib malate in second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158259
Source
Clin Ther. 2008 Feb;30(2):382-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Timo Purmonen
Janne A Martikainen
Erkki J O Soini
Vesa Kataja
Riikka-Liisa Vuorinen
Pirkko-Liisa Kellokumpu-Lehtinen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Pharmaceutical Policy and Economics, Department of Social Pharmacy, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. Timo.Purmonen@uku.fi
Source
Clin Ther. 2008 Feb;30(2):382-92
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Angiogenesis Inhibitors - economics - therapeutic use
Carcinoma, Renal Cell - drug therapy - economics - mortality - secondary
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cytokines - therapeutic use
Decision Support Techniques
Disease-Free Survival
Drug Costs
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Care Costs
Humans
Indoles - economics - therapeutic use
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Kidney Neoplasms - drug therapy - economics - mortality - pathology
Male
Markov Chains
Models, Economic
Palliative Care - economics
Protein Kinase Inhibitors - economics - therapeutic use
Pyrroles - economics - therapeutic use
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Time Factors
Treatment Failure
Abstract
Cytokine therapy is currently used as first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Until recently, treatments with proven efficacy after the failure of first-line cytokine therapy were not available. In recent clinical trials, sunitinib has been associated with good response rates in patients with mRCC.
The aim of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of sunitinib as second-line therapy for cytokine-refractory mRCC compared with current routine clinical practice in Finland (ie, best supportive care [BSC], including palliative biochemotherapy).
A probabilistic decision-analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of sunitinib. Data were gathered from clinical trials, literature sources, and expert opinions, as well as from a local sample (n = 39) from 2 university hospitals in Finland. Clinical experts treating patients with mRCC in Finland provided the information on care practices of prescribing sunitinib. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the health care payer in Finland.
According to estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), 1 progression-free month gained cost euro4802 (2005 Euros); 1 life-year gained cost euro30,831; and 1 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained cost euro43,698, compared with BSC, in the treatment of mRCC. The expected mean cost in BSC was euro5543. When parameter uncertainty was considered, the probability of sunitinib being the more cost-effective choice of treatment was ~70% at the willingness-to-pay level of euro45,000/QALY gained.
Based on the results of this cost-effectiveness analysis, sunitinib is potentially cost-effective as a second-line treatment of mRCC compared with the treatment currently practiced in Finnish hospitals. The ICER (euro/QALY gained) obtained in the present study was less than the value considered suitable for novel oncology treatments.
PubMed ID
18343276 View in PubMed
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Economic evaluation of temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173353
Source
Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(8):803-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Janne A Martikainen
Akseli Kivioja
Taru Hallinen
Pia Vihinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Pharmacy, Center for Pharmaceutical Policy and Economics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. janne.martikainen@uku.fi
Source
Pharmacoeconomics. 2005;23(8):803-15
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating - economics - therapeutic use
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - economics - therapeutic use
Brain Neoplasms - drug therapy
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Dacarbazine - analogs & derivatives - economics - therapeutic use
Finland
Glioblastoma - drug therapy
Humans
Recurrence
Abstract
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent with demonstrated efficacy as therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma. TMZ has widely replaced the procarbazine, lomustine plus vincristine (PCV) combination for the treatment of malignant brain tumours as a result of its oral administration and favourable toxicity profile.
This study had three related aims. First, the cost effectiveness of TMZ (from the Finnish healthcare payer perspective) was compared with PCV in patients with GBM that had relapsed after primary treatment with surgery and radiotherapy. Second, the probability that TMZ is cost effective, compared with PCV, was estimated at different societal willingness-to-pay levels. Third, the value of new information for reducing the uncertainty related to the choice of treatment between TMZ and PCV was evaluated.
The cost effectiveness of TMZ and PCV was evaluated using a decision-modelling approach. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for cost per gained life-month, progression-free life-month and QALY were calculated. Various information sources were used to acquire parameter values for the model. The efficacy information of both treatments was derived from the medical literature, quality-of-life (QOL) estimates were gathered from Finnish neuro-oncologists using visual analogue scale methods, and data on the use of healthcare resources were collected from hospital databases. The exact prices for resource use were gained from the list of Finnish health service unit costs (year 2001 prices). The model was analysed using second-order Monte Carlo simulation. The value of new information on reducing uncertainty was analysed using the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) approach.
According to the derived ICERs, 1 extra life-month gained with TMZ costs euro2367, 1 extra progression-free life-month costs euro2165, and 1 extra QALY costs euro32 471, compared with PCV, in the treatment of GBM. The probability of TMZ being the most cost-effective choice of treatment was >60% for all levels of willingness to pay >euro5000 per gained life-month. The respective probabilities were >75% for all levels of willingness to pay >euro10 000 per gained progression-free life-month and about 85% for all levels of willingness to pay >euro20 000 per gained quality-adjusted life-month. According to EVPI analysis, future research would potentially be cost effective if the costs of research were euro4.1 million (maximum).
On the basis of this Finnish analysis, TMZ has a high probability of being more cost effective than PCV for patients with GBM. The addition of QOL aspects to the prolonging of survival increases the probability further.
PubMed ID
16097842 View in PubMed
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Economic impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Finnish adults =50 years with underlying chronic medical conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261876
Source
J Eval Clin Pract. 2014 Aug;20(4):333-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Janne A Martikainen
Erkki J Soini
Juha Laine
Heidi Ahman
Ville Postila
Peter Klemets
Source
J Eval Clin Pract. 2014 Aug;20(4):333-41
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Budgets
Chronic Disease
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Expenditures - statistics & numerical data
Hospitalization - economics
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Econometric
Pneumococcal Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines - economics
Prevalence
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) are associated with substantial burden in adults (=50 years). Moreover, adults with vascular, metabolic or respiratory diseases have been shown to have a 3-6 times higher risk of IPD when compared with their healthy controls. These persons at higher risk are likely to benefit most from pneumococcal vaccinations. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently introduced to prevent the 13 most prevalent serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in adults. The objective of this study was to estimate the expected 5-year economic impact of targeted PCV13 vaccination compared with no vaccination in Finnish adults (=50 years) at moderate or high risk for IPD.
A budget impact model was developed to predict the impact of PCV13 vaccination in terms of the costs and IPD events avoided for years 2012-2016.
Approximately 35% of the 2.2?million Finns over 50 years of age can be considered to be at moderate or high risk for IPD because of underlying chronic medical conditions. Vaccination of these people with PCV13 could provide an estimated net budget savings of about €218?million compared with the current no-vaccination situation over the next 5 years. Among the risk groups considered, the largest absolute net savings (€66.2?million) could be expected to be obtained by vaccinating people with heart disease, due to its high prevalence in the target population.
In Finland, the immunization with PCV13 vaccine, of adults (=50 years) at moderate and high risk of IPD, is estimated to lead to substantial cost savings in the 5 years after vaccination.
PubMed ID
24813690 View in PubMed
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Plant stanol esters are potentially cost-effective in the prevention of coronary heart disease in men: Bayesian modelling approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164034
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Apr;14(2):265-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Janne A Martikainen
Anne-Mari Ottelin
Vesa Kiviniemi
Helena Gylling
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Pharmacy, Centre for Pharmaceutical Policy and Economics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland. janne.martikainen@uku.fi
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Apr;14(2):265-72
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bayes Theorem
Biological Markers - blood
Cholesterol - blood
Coronary Disease - blood - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Markov Chains
Middle Aged
Phytotherapy - economics
Plant Preparations - economics
Quality of Life
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Risk factors
Sitosterols - economics - therapeutic use
Treatment Outcome
Uncertainty
Abstract
Plant stanol esters in spreads have demonstrated efficacy in reducing serum cholesterol. The cost-effectiveness of plant stanol esters in the prevention of coronary heart disease, however, has remained unevaluated.
A Bayesian modelling approach was applied to synthesize clinical evidence and evaluate the cost-effectiveness (Euro/quality-adjusted life years) of plant stanol esters in spread in the prevention of coronary heart disease based on published FINRISK and 4S risk functions.
The regular use of plant stanol esters reduced total serum cholesterol by -0.362 mmol/l [95% credibility interval (CrI) -0.31 to -0.41]. The corresponding placebo-adjusted reduction attributable to stanol esters when combined with statin was -0.385 mmol/l (95% CrI -0.18 to -0.61). The cost-effectiveness estimations were assessed for men and women separately at four different initial ages at which the regular use of stanol esters was assumed to be started. The base case cost per quality-adjusted life years gained by using stanol esters regularly ranged from 7436 to 20,999 Euro in men and from 34,327 to 112,151 Euro in women based on the initial starting age. According to uncertainty analysis, there is over a 90% probability that the use of plant stanol esters is cost-effective for men inclusively and for 60-year-old and older women assuming that decision-makers' maximum willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year is 50,000 Euro.
A recommendation that plant stanol ester-containing spreads be used as a part of daily diet replacing regular spread could be viewed as potentially cost-effective public health policy in the prevention of CHD in all adult men and in older age-groups of women with total serum cholesterol levels of 5 mmol/l or greater.
PubMed ID
17446806 View in PubMed
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Population-based health-economic evaluation of the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147524
Source
Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Jan;26(1):25-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Erkki J O Soini
Glenn Davies
Janne A Martikainen
Henry X Hu
Kaan Tunceli
Leo Niskanen
Author Affiliation
ESiOR Oy, Kuopio, Finland. erkki.soini@esior.fi
Source
Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Jan;26(1):25-36
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cholesterol, LDL - blood
Coronary Disease - economics - prevention & control
Cost of Illness
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Secondary Prevention
Abstract
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of generic atorvastatin 20 mg (A20), branded rosuvastatin 10 mg (R10), generic simvastatin 40 mg (S40) and the combination of generic S40 + branded ezetimibe 10 mg (S40 + EZ10) for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Finnish patients not meeting the target goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with S40.
A probabilistic Markov model was employed to evaluate the costs and health outcomes of the different therapies based on the cardiovascular events avoided. The model included Framingham risk equations, Finnish population characteristics, event rates, quality of life estimates, resource use and unit costs. The LDL-C lowering efficacies were gathered from a systematic literature review, based on a search of Medline carried out in June 2008 (no time limit).
Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and incremental cost per life year gained (LYG).
The efficacy (LDL-C decrease) gained from switching S40 to S40 + EZ10 was consistent in the literature review, whereas the LDL-C decrease gained from switching S40 to A20/R10 was uncertain. The incremental cost per QALY gained from switching generic S40 was lowest for S40 + EZ10 (22,841 euros [24,017 euros] and 26,595 euros [46,686 euros] for diabetic and non-diabetic men [women], respectively). The respective incremental cost per QALY gained for S40 + EZ10 vs. A20 were 19,738 euros (21,405 euros) and 23,596 euros (40,087 euros). A20 dominated R10. Based on the cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier with a willingness-to-pay value of 30,000 euros per QALY gained, the probability of cost-effectiveness for switching generic S40 to S40 + EZ10 was 100% for men and diabetic women. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were robust.
In the Finnish secondary prevention population that is not at goal on S40, switching generic S40 to S40 + EZ10 is more cost-effective than switching S40 to generic A20 or R10.
PubMed ID
19895364 View in PubMed
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Register-based predictors of adherence among new statin users in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257589
Source
J Clin Lipidol. 2014 Jan-Feb;8(1):117-25
Publication Type
Article
Author
Emma J Aarnio
Janne A Martikainen
Arja Helin-Salmivaara
Risto K Huupponen
Juha E K Hartikainen
Piia K Peura
Maarit Jaana Korhonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tykslab, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: emma.aarnio@uef.fi.
Source
J Clin Lipidol. 2014 Jan-Feb;8(1):117-25
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Delivery of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Male
Medication Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Registries
Abstract
Although register-based studies on statin adherence are increasing, for administrative data, little is known about the explanatory power of the predictors that explain adherence.
The aim was to explore the ability of variables in administrative data to predict statin adherence in an unselected, universally insured population and, especially, to explore dispensation delay (time elapsed between prescription and dispensation) and out-of-pocket costs as explanatory factors.
Statin initiators who were aged 45 to 75 years in 2000-2004 (n = 247, 051) were identified in the Finnish Prescription Register. First-year statin adherence was measured as the proportion of days covered (PDC). The effect of variables related to patient, health care, and payment was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. The C statistic was used to evaluate the explanatory power of different models.
Overall, 54.6% of the cohort had good adherence (PDC = 80%). The explanatory power of all the models was low (C = 0.666 for the full model). The multivariable models, including only payment variables, had a greater explanatory power (C = 0.627) than models with only patient (C = 0.602) or health care (C = 0.548) variables. A shorter dispensation delay and lower out-of-pocket costs predicted better adherence. Of other patient-related variables, age, presence of acute coronary syndrome, and use of cardiovascular medications were significant predictors of adherence. Type of statin and the prescriber's workplace were also significantly associated with adherence.
Models based on administrative data do not provide useful prediction of statin adherence. Of the individual predictors, long dispensation delay may serve as a practical tool for identifying patients at risk of poor adherence. Increases in out-of-pocket costs predict nonadherence.
PubMed ID
24528692 View in PubMed
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12 records – page 1 of 2.