The purpose of this study is to compare self-reported quality of life (QOL) scores in old and young patients with metastatic cancer using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C15-PAL questionnaire.
Patients receiving palliative radiotherapy (RT) for bone metastases and brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL questionnaire prior to treatment. Using multiple linear regression analysis, a parametric test, the QLQ-C15-PAL scores were compared using 65 and 70 years as cutoff ages.
A total of 340 patients were referred for palliative RT for bone metastases (n = 190) or brain metastases (n = 150). Physical functioning and appetite were worse in the older group using either 65 or 70 years as the cutoff age. Age-related differences in the QLQ-C15-PAL scores varied as a function of age cutoff used and location of metastatic site irradiated.
Based on the (EORTC) QLQ-C15-PAL, elderly advanced cancer patients have a different QOL profile. Similar observations have been reported with the (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire.
Determine adequacy of management of pain secondary to bone metastases by physicians referring to specialized outpatient palliative radiotherapy (RT) clinics in Canada; compare geographic differences in adequacy of pain management and pain severity between these cohorts; compare results with published international literature.
Prospectively collected data from three participating centers were used to calculate the Pain Management Index (PMI) by subtracting the patient-rated pain score at time of initial clinic visit from the analgesic score. Scores were 0, 1, 2, and 3 when patients reported no pain (0), mild (1-4), moderate (5-6), or severe pain (7-10), respectively, on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System or Brief Pain Inventory. Analgesic scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were assigned for no pain medication, nonopioids, weak opioids, and strong opioids respectively. A negative PMI suggests inadequate pain management.
Overall incidence of negative PMI and moderate to severe pain was 25.1% and 70.9% respectively for 2011 patients. Comparing the three participating centers, the incidence of negative PMI was 31.0%, 20.0%, and 16.8% (p
The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL.
Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales.
Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at baseline and follow-up. QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty and motor dysfunction correlated with the most QLQ-C15-PAL scales, including overall QOL (negative association) at baseline and follow-up.
After radiation, the questionnaires showed maintenance of QOL and improvement of QOL scores such as future uncertainty, which featured prominently in this patient population. It is proposed that the 37-item QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, as opposed to the 50-item QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30, may be used together as a universal QOL assessment tool in this setting.
To examine the reported rates and predictive factors for sleep disturbance in patients with bone metastases.
Patients with symptomatic bone metastases treated with palliative radiotherapy (RT) were eligible. At initial consultation, demographic information, baseline Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire, and analgesic consumption were recorded. The BPI functional interference sleep item was categorized into none (0), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10). Follow-up BPI was collected in person or via telephone post-RT at week 4, 8, and 12. Subgroup analysis for BPI between responders and nonresponders was performed. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to search for the relationship between sleep disturbance and other covariates.
Four hundred patients were enrolled between May 2003 and June 2007. Two hundred thirty-five males (59%) were accrued. The median age was 68 years old (range, 30-91). Within the study population, primary cancer sites included breast (25%), lung (25%), prostate (24%), bladder (4%), pancreas/gastric (3%), and other primaries (18%). In the BPI functional interference items, the mean baseline score for sleep disturbance was 4.8. When categorized in terms of severity, 99 (25%) patients had moderate sleep disturbance and 144 (36%) patients had severe sleep disturbance, respectively. There was an improvement in sleep scores for both responders and nonresponders at week 4 and 8, but scores worsened for nonresponders at week 12.
Age, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), pain score, and lung primary were the significant variables associated with sleep disturbance. The scores for sleep disturbance improved significantly post-RT in responders at week 4 and 12.