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Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121827
Source
Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 14;109(5):920-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-14-2013
Author
Cecilie Kyrø
Guri Skeie
Steffen Loft
Kim Overvad
Jane Christensen
Anne Tjønneland
Anja Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 14;109(5):920-7
Date
Mar-14-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Avena sativa
Brassica
Bread
Cohort Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Diet
Female
Fishes
Fruit
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Malus
Middle Aged
Norway
Pyrus
Rectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Secale cereale
Vegetables
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.
Notes
Erratum In: Br J Nutr. 2014 Feb;111(4):758-9
PubMed ID
22874538 View in PubMed
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Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes--The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273886
Source
Nutrients. 2015 Oct;7(10):8633-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Sandra Amalie Lacoppidan
Cecilie Kyrø
Steffen Loft
Anne Helnæs
Jane Christensen
Camilla Plambeck Hansen
Christina Catherine Dahm
Kim Overvad
Anne Tjønneland
Anja Olsen
Source
Nutrients. 2015 Oct;7(10):8633-44
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - prevention & control
Diet - ethnology - standards
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables.
Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders.
Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5-6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61-0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53-0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence).
Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26506373 View in PubMed
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Alcohol intake, drinking patterns and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in Denmark: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9707
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2003 Apr;14(3):277-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Anne Tjønneland
Birthe L Thomsen
Connie Stripp
Jane Christensen
Kim Overvad
Lene Mellemkaer
Morten Grønbaek
Jørgen H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. annet@cancer.dk
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2003 Apr;14(3):277-84
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Middle Aged
Postmenopause
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The available epidemiological evidence indicates that drinking alcohol per se is associated with breast cancer. However, it has not been investigated how the breast cancer risk for a given total alcohol consumption depends on the drinking frequency. METHODS: Within the prospective study on 'Diet, Cancer and Health', we examined the relationship between breast cancer, intake of total alcohol and frequency of drinking among 23,778 postmenopausal women, among whom 425 cases of breast cancer accrued during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. RESULTS: The dose-response relationship between total alcohol intake and breast cancer showed an increase in the rate ratio of 1.10 per 10 g/day (95% CI: 1.04-1.16) with no evidence for differences by type of alcohol beverage. No interaction was found between drinking frequency and total alcohol intake in the risk of breast cancer (p = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports previous ones in showing a monotonic increase in the risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women with increasing average daily intake of alcohol, and this relationship with alcohol intake did not depend on drinking frequency.
PubMed ID
12814207 View in PubMed
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An association between dietary arachidonic acid, measured in adipose tissue, and ulcerative colitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140034
Source
Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec;139(6):1912-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Punyanganie S A de Silva
Anja Olsen
Jane Christensen
Erik Berg Schmidt
Kim Overvaad
Anne Tjonneland
Andrew R Hart
Author Affiliation
Department of Gastroenterology, Norfolk & Norwich University Hospital NHS Trust, Norwich, United Kingdom. punyanganie@yahoo.com
Source
Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec;139(6):1912-7
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - pathology
Aged
Arachidonic Acid - adverse effects - metabolism
Biological Markers - metabolism
Biopsy
Colitis, Ulcerative - epidemiology - etiology - metabolism
Denmark - epidemiology
Dietary Fats - adverse effects - metabolism
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Dietary arachidonic acid, an n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA), might be involved in the etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a prospective cohort study to determine whether high levels of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue samples (which reflects dietary intake) are associated with UC.
We analyzed data collected from 57,053 men and women in the EPIC-Denmark Prospective Cohort Study from 1993 to 1997. Adipose tissue biopsy samples were collected from gluteal regions at the beginning of the study, the cohort was monitored over subsequent years, and participants who developed UC were identified. A subcohort of 2510 randomly selected participants were used as controls. Concentrations of arachidonic acid were measured in adipose tissue samples. In the analysis, arachidonic acid levels were divided into quartiles; relative risks (RR) were calculated and adjusted for smoking, use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and levels of n-3 PUFAs.
A total of 34 subjects (56% men) developed incident UC at a median age of 58.8 years (range, 50.0-69.0 years). Those in the highest quartile for arachidonic acid concentrations in adipose tissue had an RR for UC of 4.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-11.04); a trend per 0.1% increase in arachidonic acid of 1.77 in RR was observed (95% CI: 1.38-2.27). The fraction attributed the highest levels of arachidonic acid was 40.3%.
Individuals with the highest relative concentrations of arachidonic acid in adipose tissue have a significantly greater risk of developing UC. Dietary modifications might therefore prevent UC or reduce disease symptoms.
PubMed ID
20950616 View in PubMed
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Association of adherence to lifestyle recommendations and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective Danish cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139798
Source
BMJ. 2010;341:c5504
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Helene Kirkegaard
Nina Føns Johnsen
Jane Christensen
Kirsten Frederiksen
Kim Overvad
Anne Tjønneland
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. helene.kirkegaard@webspeed.dk
Source
BMJ. 2010;341:c5504
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Educational Status
Exercise
Female
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Patient compliance
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Waist Circumference
Abstract
To evaluate the association between a simple lifestyle index based on the recommendations for five lifestyle factors and the incidence of colorectal cancer, and to estimate the proportion of colorectal cancer cases attributable to lack of adherence to the recommendations.
Prospective cohort study.
General population of Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark.
55?487 men and women aged 50-64 years at baseline (1993-7), not previously diagnosed with cancer.
Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to points achieved in the lifestyle index (based on physical activity, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol intake, and diet (dietary fibre, energy percentage from fat, red and processed meat, and fruits and vegetables)) modelled through Cox regression.
During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 678 men and women had colorectal cancer diagnosed. After adjustment for potential confounders, each additional point achieved on the lifestyle index, corresponding to one additional recommendation that was met, was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (incidence rate ratio 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.96). In this population an estimated total of 13% (95% CI 4% to 22%) of the colorectal cancer cases were attributable to lack of adherence to merely one additional recommendation among all participants except the healthiest. If all participants had followed the five recommendations 23% (9% to 37%) of the colorectal cancer cases might have been prevented. Results were similar for colon and rectal cancer, but only statistically significant for colon cancer.
Adherence to the recommendations for physical activity, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol intake, and diet may reduce colorectal cancer risk considerably, and in this population 23% of the cases might be attributable to lack of adherence to the five lifestyle recommendations. The simple structure of the lifestyle index facilitates its use in public health practice.
Notes
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Comment In: Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2011 Mar;41(1):70-321539071
Comment In: BMJ. 2010;341:c540720978061
PubMed ID
20978063 View in PubMed
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Baseline prostate-specific antigen measurements and subsequent prostate cancer risk in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113794
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2013 Sep;49(14):3041-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Signe Benzon Larsen
Klaus Brasso
Peter Iversen
Jane Christensen
Michael Christiansen
Sigrid Carlsson
Hans Lilja
Søren Friis
Anne Tjønneland
Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. benzon@cancer.dk
Source
Eur J Cancer. 2013 Sep;49(14):3041-8
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Prostate-Specific Antigen - blood
Prostatic Neoplasms - blood - diagnosis - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening reduces mortality from prostate cancer, substantial over-diagnosis and subsequent overtreatment are concerns. Early screening of men for PSA may serve to stratify the male population by risk of future clinical prostate cancer.
Case-control study nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort of 27,179 men aged 50-64 at enrolment. PSA measured in serum collected at cohort entry in 1993-1997 was used to evaluate prostate cancer risk diagnosed up to 14 years after. We identified 911 prostate cancer cases in the Danish Cancer Registry through 31st December 2007 1:1 age-matched with cancer-free controls. Aggressive cancer was defined as = T3 or Gleason score = 7 or N1 or M1. Statistical analyses were based on conditional logistic regression with age as underlying time axis.
Total PSA and free-to-total PSA ratio at baseline were strongly associated with prostate cancer risk up to 14 years later. PSA was grouped in quintiles and free-to-total PSA ratio divided in three risk groups. The incidence rate ratio for prostate cancer was 150 (95% confidence interval, 72-310) among men with a total PSA in the highest quintile (> 5.1 ng/ml) compared to the lowest (
Notes
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PubMed ID
23684783 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer and early retirement: Associations with disease characteristics, treatment, comorbidity, social position and participation in a six-day rehabilitation course in a register-based study in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137931
Source
Acta Oncol. 2011 Feb;50(2):274-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Lars Henrik Damkjaer
Isabelle Deltour
Nis Palm Suppli
Jane Christensen
Niels T Kroman
Christoffer Johansen
Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton
Author Affiliation
Institute for Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen, Denmark. damkjaer@cancer.dk
Source
Acta Oncol. 2011 Feb;50(2):274-81
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Algorithms
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology - rehabilitation - therapy
Comorbidity
Curriculum
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Progression
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Staging
Patient Education as Topic
Patient Participation
Registries
Retirement - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this register-based study was to identify factors related to disease, treatment, sociodemographics and comorbidity associated with taking early retirement among women treated for breast cancer, and to evaluate the risk for taking early retirement among breast cancer survivors who attended a six-day rehabilitation course.
The study population consisted of 856 women who attended the rehabilitation course and a comparison group of 1 805 women who did not attend the course identified through the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We obtained information on receipt of unemployment benefits, sickness benefits and early retirement pension for each of the years 1996-2007. Multivariate cox-regression models were used to analyze disease-specific, treatment-related, comorbidity and sociodemographics factors associated with early retirement after breast cancer and to evaluate the effect of attending a rehabilitation course on taking early retirement.
The rate of retirement was higher for women with somatic comorbidity (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.3; 2.9 for score 1, and HR 1.42; 95% CI, 0.7; 2.7 for score =2), previous depression (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.7; 3.2) or having received sickness benefits in the year before their breast cancer diagnosis (HR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.8; 7.8). Living with a partner was associated with a reduced hazard ratio for taking early retirement (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). Having received chemotherapy, alone or in combination with anti-hormone treatment, reduced the hazard ratio (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.3; 0.8 and HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3; 0.8, respectively). The rate of retirement was higher for women the year after attending the rehabilitation course but returned to unity by three years.
The results of this study contribute to the identification of at-risk women and point to the need for tailored rehabilitation to avoid unnecessary marginalization of breast cancer survivors due to permanent labor market withdrawal.
PubMed ID
21231788 View in PubMed
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Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272044
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0128018
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Lene Mellemkjaer
Fotios C Papadopoulos
Eero Pukkala
Anders Ekbom
Mika Gissler
Jane Christensen
Jørgen H Olsen
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0128018
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26000630 View in PubMed
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Changes in body mass index and alcohol and tobacco consumption among breast cancer survivors and cancer-free women: a prospective study in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118017
Source
Acta Oncol. 2013 Feb;52(2):327-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Pernille E Bidstrup
Susanne O Dalton
Jane Christensen
Anne Tjonneland
Signe B Larsen
Randi Karlsen
Abenaa Brewster
Melissa Bondy
Christoffer Johansen
Author Affiliation
Survivorship, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark. pernille@cancer.dk
Source
Acta Oncol. 2013 Feb;52(2):327-35
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Body mass index
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality - rehabilitation
Carcinoma - epidemiology - mortality - rehabilitation
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet Surveys
Female
Health status
Humans
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Smoking - epidemiology
Survivors - statistics & numerical data
Women
Abstract
A breast cancer diagnosis has been suggested as a teachable moment when a woman is more open to making healthier lifestyle changes. Little is known about the health behaviour changes women with breast cancer initiate compared to those made by other women.
We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) and tobacco and alcohol consumption among women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and among cancer-free women. We used data from 23 420 women aged 50-64 years who participated in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, of whom 449 were diagnosed with breast cancer between baseline (1993-1997) and follow-up (2000-2002), and 22 971 remained cancer-free. We used multiple linear regression analysis to examine differences in BMI and alcohol and tobacco consumption between the two groups and to examine whether demographic and prognostic factors were associated with behavioural changes in women with breast cancer.
There were no significant differences in changes in BMI, alcohol and tobacco consumption between the two groups. Only in sub-analyses among women who lost weight between baseline and follow-up, women with breast cancer lost more weight than cancer-free women (ß = 0.2; CI 0.1; 0.4), but residual confounding from stage cannot be excluded. Among the women with breast cancer we found no significant changes in BMI, alcohol and tobacco consumption by level of education, marital status, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or radiation.
Women with breast cancer did not reduce their BMI, or modify their alcohol use or tobacco consumption compared with cancer-free women. This study indicates that guidelines and interventions to change health behaviour are needed after a cancer diagnosis.
PubMed ID
23244678 View in PubMed
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphisms and risk of inflammatory bowel disease in a Scottish and Danish case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141181
Source
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Apr;17(4):937-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Vibeke Andersen
Elaine Nimmo
Henrik B Krarup
Hazel Drummond
Jane Christensen
Gwo-Tzer Ho
Mette Ostergaard
Anja Ernst
Charlie Lees
Bent A Jacobsen
Jack Satsangi
Ulla Vogel
Author Affiliation
Medical Department, Viborg Regional Hospital, Viborg, Denmark. va9791@gmail.com
Source
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Apr;17(4):937-46
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Biological Markers - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Colitis, Ulcerative - genetics
Crohn Disease - genetics
Cyclooxygenase 2 - genetics
DNA - genetics
Denmark
Female
Gene Frequency
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Scotland
Young Adult
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a result of interactions between luminal pathogens and the intestinal immune response. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response upon stimulation by luminal pathogens via Toll-like receptors.
Genotypes of the COX-2/PTGS2/PGHS2 A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms were assessed in a Scottish and Danish case-control study including 732 Crohn's disease (CD) cases, 973 ulcerative colitis (UC) cases, and 1157 healthy controls using logistic regression.
Carriers of the COX-2 A-1195G variant allele had increased risk of UC (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 [1.02-1.54], P = 0.03) and of both UC and IBD among never smokers (OR [95% CI] = 1.47 [1.11-1.96], P = 0.01 and OR [95% CI] = 1.37 [1.06-1.77], P = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, this variant genotype was associated with increased risk of diagnosis of UC before age 40 years and with extensive UC (OR [95% CI] = 1.34 [1.11-1.62], P = 0.002 and OR [95% CI] = 1.32 [1.03-1.69], P = 0.03, respectively).
COX-2 A-1195G polymorphism was associated with the risk of UC, especially among never-smokers, suggesting that low activity of COX-2 may predispose to UC. Our results suggest that inclusion of smoking status may be essential for the evaluation of the role of genetic predisposition to IBD.
PubMed ID
20803508 View in PubMed
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