Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with pregnancy complications, and Norwegian Health Authorities have adopted the GWG recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (IOM). The aim of this study was to evaluate if a GWG outside the IOM recommendation in a Norwegian population is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications like hypertension, low and high birth weight, preeclampsia, emergency caesarean delivery, and maternal post-partum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 and 18 months.
This study was performed in 56 101 pregnant women included in the prospective national Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) in the years 1999 to 2008. Women who delivered a singleton live born child during gestational week 37 to 42 were included. Maternal prepregnant and postpartum weight was collected from questionnaires at 17th week of gestation and 6 and 18 months postpartum.
A weight gain less than the IOM recommendations (GWG??IOM rec.) significantly increased the risk of pregnancy hypertension, a high birth weight baby, preeclampsia and emergency cesarean delivery in both nulliparous and parous normal weight women. Similar results were found for overweight women except for no increased risk for gestational hypertension in parous women with GWG?>?IOM rec. Seventy-four percent of the overweight nulliparous women and 66% of the obese women had a GWG?>?IOM rec. A GWG?>?IOM rec. resulted in increased risk of PPWR?>?2 kg in all weight classes, but most women attained their prepregnant weight class by 18 months post-partum.
For prepregnant normal weight and overweight women a GWG?>?IOM rec. increased the risk for unfavorable birth outcomes in both nulliparous and parous women. A GWG?>?IOM rec. increased the risk of a PPWR?>?2 kg at 18 months in all weight classes. This large study supports the Norwegian Health authorities' recommendations for normal weight and overweight women to comply with the IOM rec.
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1288-9419759164
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1552-819812177
High sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is associated with health risks. NaCl may be replaced by potassium chloride (KCl) to decrease sodium intake. However, increased potassium may also have negative health effects. We conducted a benefit and risk assessment of increasing potassium by ratios of 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 (weight % K+: weight % Na+) in children, adolescents and adults in Norway, using intake data from national food consumption surveys and available literature on potassium health effects. An intake of at least 3.5 g/day of potassium decreases risk of stroke and hypertension, and this level was used in the benefit assessment of the healthy population. Three g/day of potassium added to mean food intake is assumed safe, and these levels were used in the risk assessment. Not all persons reached the protective level of potassium, and increasing numbers exceeded the safe levels, in these scenarios. In addition, elderly above 85 years and infants below one year of age, as well as several patient groups and medication users, are particularly vulnerable to hyperkalemia. In conclusion, the number of Norwegians facing increased risk is far greater than the number likely to benefit from this replacement of sodium with potassium in industrially produced food.
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans.
We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes.
Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was -25.7 g (95% CI: -35.9, -15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide- and glycidamide-Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively).
Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth.
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 2001 Aug;27(4):219-2611560335
INSERM, UMR1153 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Sorbonne Paris Cité Center (CRESS), Early determinants of the child's health and development Team (ORCHAD), Paris F-75014, France; Paris Descartes University, Paris, France. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Prenatal acrylamide exposure has been negatively associated with fetal growth but the association with child growth is unknown.
We studied the association between prenatal acrylamide exposure and child postnatal growth up to 8?years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
In 51,952 mother-child pairs from MoBa, acrylamide intake during pregnancy was estimated by combining maternal food intake with food concentrations of acrylamide. Mothers reported their child's weight and length/height up to 11 times between 6?weeks and 8?years. Weight and height growth trajectories were modelled using Jenss-Bayley's growth model. Logistic regression models were used to study the association with overweight/obese status at 3, 5 and 8?years, as identified using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Linear mixed-effect models were used to explore associations with overall growth.
At 3?years, the adjusted odds ratios (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)) of being overweight/obese were 1.10 (1.02, 1.20), 1.12 (1.04, 1.22) and 1.21 (1.11, 1.31) by increasing prenatal acrylamide exposure quartile. Similar dose-response associations were found at 5 and 8?years. Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was associated with higher weight growth velocity in childhood. Children exposed at the highest level had 22?g (95% CI: 8, 37), 57?g (95% CI: 32, 81), and 194?g (95% CI: 110, 278) higher weight at 0.5, 2, and 8?years, respectively, compared to their low exposed peers.
Children prenatally exposed to acrylamide in the highest quartile experienced a moderate increase in weight growth velocity during early childhood that resulted in a moderately increased prevalence of overweight/obesity compared to peers in the lowest quartile. Our study is the first to link prenatal acrylamide exposure and postnatal growth.
Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain.
To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients.
The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P
This study investigates dietary exposure and serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a group of Norwegians (n = 184) with a wide range of seafood consumption (4-455 g/day). Mean dietary exposure to Sum 5 PBDEs (1.5 ng/kg body weight/day) is among the highest reported. Since concentrations in foods were similar to those found elsewhere in Europe, this may be explained by high seafood consumption among Norwegians. Oily fish was the main dietary contributor both to Sum PBDEs and to the considerably lower HBCD intake (0.3 ng/kg body weight/day). Milk products appeared to contribute most to the BDE-209 intake (1.4 ng/kg body weight/day). BDE-209 and HBCD exposures are based on few food samples and need to be confirmed. Serum levels (mean Sum 7 PBDEs = 5.2 ng/g lipid) and congener patterns (BDE-47 > BDE-153 > BDE-99) were comparable with other European reports. Correlations between individual congeners were higher for the calculated dietary exposure than for serum levels. Further, significant but weak correlations were found between dietary exposure and serum levels for Sum PBDEs, BDE-47, and BDE-28 in males. This indicates that other sources in addition to diet need to be addressed.
Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.
There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7