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Biodiversity and Habitats of Polar Region Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid-Producing Bacteria: Bioprospection by Popular Screening Methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310996
Source
Genes (Basel). 2020 07 31; 11(8):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-31-2020
Author
Malgorzata Marta Rogala
Jan Gawor
Robert Gromadka
Magdalena Kowalczyk
Jakub Grzesiak
Author Affiliation
Department of Antarctic Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences Pawinskiego 5A, 02-106 Warszawa, Poland.
Source
Genes (Basel). 2020 07 31; 11(8):
Date
07-31-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Comamonadaceae - classification - genetics - metabolism
Microbiota
Micrococcaceae - classification - genetics - metabolism
Phylogeny
Polyhydroxyalkanoates - biosynthesis - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Seawater - microbiology
Soil Microbiology
Abstract
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), the intracellular polymers produced by various microorganisms as carbon and energy storage, are of great technological potential as biodegradable versions of common plastics. PHA-producing microbes are therefore in great demand and a plethora of different environments, especially extreme habitats, have been probed for the presence of PHA-accumulators. However, the polar region has been neglected in this regard, probably due to the low accessibility of the sampling material and unusual cultivation regime. Here, we present the results of a screening procedure involving 200 bacterial strains isolated from 25 habitats of both polar regions. Agar-based tests, microscopy, and genetic methods were conducted to elucidate the biodiversity and potential of polar-region PHA-accumulators. Microscopic observation of Nile Red stained cells proved to be the most reliable screening method as it allowed to confirm the characteristic bright orange glow of the Nile Red-PHA complex as well as the typical morphology of the PHA inclusions. Psychrophilic PHA-producers belonged mostly to the Comamonadaceae family (Betaproteobacteria) although actinobacterial PHA synthesizers of the families, Microbacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae also featured prominently. Glacial and postglacial habitats as well as developed polar region soils, were evaluated as promising for PHA-producer bioprospection. This study highlights the importance of psychrophiles as biodiverse and potent polyhydroxyalkanoate sources for scientific and application-aimed research.
PubMed ID
32752049 View in PubMed
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Evidence of adaptation, niche separation and microevolution within the genus Polaromonas on Arctic and Antarctic glacial surfaces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271909
Source
Extremophiles. 2016 Apr 20;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-20-2016
Author
Jan Gawor
Jakub Grzesiak
Joanna Sasin-Kurowska
Piotr Borsuk
Robert Gromadka
Dorota Górniak
Aleksander Swiatecki
Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk
Marek K Zdanowski
Source
Extremophiles. 2016 Apr 20;
Date
Apr-20-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Polaromonas is one of the most abundant genera found on glacier surfaces, yet its ecology remains poorly described. Investigations made to date point towards a uniform distribution of Polaromonas phylotypes across the globe. We compared 43 Polaromonas isolates obtained from surfaces of Arctic and Antarctic glaciers to address this issue. 16S rRNA gene sequences, intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) and metabolic fingerprinting showed great differences between hemispheres but also between neighboring glaciers. Phylogenetic distance between Arctic and Antarctic isolates indicated separate species. The Arctic group clustered similarly, when constructing dendrograms based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequences, as well as metabolic traits. The Antarctic strains, although almost identical considering 16S rRNA genes, diverged into 2 groups based on the ITS sequences and metabolic traits, suggesting recent niche separation. Certain phenotypic traits pointed towards cell adaptation to specific conditions on a particular glacier, like varying pH levels. Collected data suggest, that seeding of glacial surfaces with Polaromonas cells transported by various means, is of greater efficiency on local than global scales. Selection mechanisms present of glacial surfaces reduce the deposited Polaromonas diversity, causing subsequent adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions. Furthermore, interactions with other supraglacial microbiota, like algae cells may drive postselectional niche separation and microevolution within the Polaromonas genus.
PubMed ID
27097637 View in PubMed
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Identification of miniature plasmids in psychrophilic Arctic bacteria of the genus Variovorax.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270585
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2016 Apr;92(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Anna Ciok
Lukasz Dziewit
Jakub Grzesiak
Karol Budzik
Dorota Gorniak
Marek K Zdanowski
Dariusz Bartosik
Source
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2016 Apr;92(4)
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Svalbard archipelago (Spitsbergen Island) is the northernmost landmass in the European Arctic and has a variety of small- and medium-sized glaciers. The plasmidome of eleven psychrophilic strains of Variovorax spp. isolated from the ice surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers of Spitsbergen Island, was defined. This analysis revealed the presence of six plasmids whose nucleotide sequences have been determined. Four of them, exhibiting high reciprocal sequence similarity, possess unique structures, since their genomes lack any recognized genes. These miniature replicons, not exceeding 1 kb in size, include pHW69V1 (746 bp), which is the smallest autonomous replicon so far identified in free-living bacteria. The miniature plasmids share no similarity with known sequences present in the databases. In silico and experimental analyses identified conserved DNA regions essential for the initiation of replication of these replicons.
PubMed ID
26917781 View in PubMed
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Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263930
Source
Extremophiles. 2015 Jun 24;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-24-2015
Author
Jakub Grzesiak
Dorota Górniak
Aleksander Swiatecki
Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk
Katarzyna Szatraj
Marek K Zdanowski
Source
Extremophiles. 2015 Jun 24;
Date
Jun-24-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier-grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae.
PubMed ID
26104673 View in PubMed
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Plasmids of Psychrotolerant Polaromonas spp. Isolated From Arctic and Antarctic Glaciers - Diversity and Role in Adaptation to Polar Environments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292661
Source
Front Microbiol. 2018; 9:1285
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Anna Ciok
Karol Budzik
Marek K Zdanowski
Jan Gawor
Jakub Grzesiak
Przemyslaw Decewicz
Robert Gromadka
Dariusz Bartosik
Lukasz Dziewit
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
Source
Front Microbiol. 2018; 9:1285
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Cold-active bacteria of the genus Polaromonas (class Betaproteobacteria) are important components of glacial microbiomes. In this study, extrachromosomal replicons of 26 psychrotolerant Polaromonas strains, isolated from Arctic and Antarctic glaciers, were identified, sequenced, and characterized. The plasmidome of these strains consists of 13 replicons, ranging in size from 3,378 to 101,077 bp. In silico sequence analyses identified the conserved backbones of these plasmids, composed of genes required for plasmid replication, stable maintenance, and conjugal transfer. Host range analysis revealed that all of the identified plasmids are narrow-host-range replicons, only able to replicate in bacteria of closely related genera (Polaromonas and Variovorax) of the Comamonadaceae family. Special attention was paid to the identification of plasmid auxiliary genetic information, which may contribute to the adaptation of bacteria to environmental conditions occurring in glaciers. Detailed analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins potentially involved in (i) protection against reactive oxygen species, ultraviolet radiation, and low temperatures; (ii) transport and metabolism of organic compounds; (iii) transport of metal ions; and (iv) resistance to heavy metals. Some of the plasmids also carry genes required for the molecular assembly of iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters. Functional analysis of the predicted heavy metal resistance determinants demonstrated that their activity varies, depending on the host strain. This study provides the first molecular insight into the mobile DNA of Polaromonas spp. inhabiting polar glaciers. It has generated valuable data on the structure and properties of a pool of plasmids and highlighted their role in the biology of psychrotolerant Polaromonas strains and their adaptation to the environmental conditions of Arctic and Antarctic glaciers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29967598 View in PubMed
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