Macular hole is a retinal disease primarily affecting elderly women. Its overall prevalence in the Danish population is estimated to be 0.14%. The majority of cases are unilateral. The fully developed macular hole evolves through a series of stages starting with an impending hole. About half of impending macular holes regress spontaneously. The remaining half progress to full thickness macular holes. In a patient with a macular hole in one eye, the risk of development of a macular hole in the fellow eye is less than 2% if posterior vitreous detachment is present. If the posterior vitreous is attached, the risk is approximately 15%. If an impending hole is found in the other eye, the risk rises to 50%.
Macular hole surgery is able to close full thickness macular holes in approximately 90% of cases. Visual acuity of 20/50 or better can be obtained in approximately half of patients with recent onset of symptoms. Complications include retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, late reopening of an initially successfully closed hole and retinal pigment epithelial abnormalities. Retinal detachment should be expected in less than 5% of cases.
1Copenhagen Centre for Team Sports and Health, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DENMARK; 2Department of Cardiology, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, DENMARK; 3Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen and Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DENMARK; 4Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, St. Luke's Campus, University of Exeter, Devon, UNITED KINGDOM; and 5Department of Cardiology, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, DENMARK.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which is worsened by physical inactivity. Subclinical myocardial dysfunction is associated with increased risk of heart failure and impaired prognosis in T2DM; however, it is not clear if exercise training can counteract the early signs of diabetic heart disease.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soccer training on cardiac function, exercise capacity, and blood pressure in middle-age men with T2DM.
Twenty-one men age 49.8 ± 1.7 yr with T2DM and no history of cardiovascular disease participated in a soccer training group (n = 12) that trained 1 h twice a week or a control group (n = 9) with no change in lifestyle. Examinations included comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, measurements of blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (V(?)O(2max)), and intermittent endurance capacity before and after 12 and 24 wk. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied.
After 24 wk of soccer training, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter and volume were increased (P