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Acquired obesity is associated with changes in the serum lipidomic profile independent of genetic effects--a monozygotic twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165168
Source
PLoS One. 2007;2(2):e218
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Kirsi H Pietiläinen
Marko Sysi-Aho
Aila Rissanen
Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso
Hannele Yki-Järvinen
Jaakko Kaprio
Matej Oresic
Author Affiliation
Obesity Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
PLoS One. 2007;2(2):e218
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Fat - pathology
Adult
Body Composition
Body mass index
Diet Records
Female
Finland
Humans
Insulin Resistance
Lipids - blood
Lysophosphatidylcholines - blood
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Metabolomics
Obesity - blood - epidemiology - genetics - pathology
Smoking - epidemiology
Sphingomyelins - blood
Subcutaneous Fat - pathology
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Both genetic and environmental factors are involved in the etiology of obesity and the associated lipid disturbances. We determined whether acquired obesity is associated with changes in global serum lipid profiles independent of genetic factors in young adult monozygotic (MZ) twins. 14 healthy MZ pairs discordant for obesity (10 to 25 kg weight difference) and ten weight concordant control pairs aged 24-27 years were identified from a large population-based study. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic clamp technique, and body composition by DEXA (% body fat) and by MRI (subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat). Global characterization of lipid molecular species in serum was performed by a lipidomics strategy using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Obesity, independent of genetic influences, was primarily related to increases in lysophosphatidylcholines, lipids found in proinflammatory and proatherogenic conditions and to decreases in ether phospholipids, which are known to have antioxidant properties. These lipid changes were associated with insulin resistance, a pathogonomic characteristic of acquired obesity in these young adult twins. Our results show that obesity, already in its early stages and independent of genetic influences, is associated with deleterious alterations in the lipid metabolism known to facilitate atherogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17299598 View in PubMed
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Adipose co-expression networks across Finns and Mexicans identify novel triglyceride-associated genes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118360
Source
BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Blake E Haas
Steve Horvath
Kirsi H Pietiläinen
Rita M Cantor
Elina Nikkola
Daphna Weissglas-Volkov
Aila Rissanen
Mete Civelek
Ivette Cruz-Bautista
Laura Riba
Johanna Kuusisto
Jaakko Kaprio
Teresa Tusie-Luna
Markku Laakso
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas
Päivi Pajukanta
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Genetics, Gonda Center, Los Angeles, California, 90095-7088, USA.
Source
BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:61
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Finland
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation
Gene Regulatory Networks - genetics
Genetic Loci - genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Immunity - genetics
Inflammation - blood - genetics
Mexico
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Triglycerides - blood - genetics
Twins - genetics
Abstract
High serum triglyceride (TG) levels is an established risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fat is stored in the form of TGs in human adipose tissue. We hypothesized that gene co-expression networks in human adipose tissue may be correlated with serum TG levels and help reveal novel genes involved in TG regulation.
Gene co-expression networks were constructed from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample using the blockwiseModules R function in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Overlap between TG-associated networks from each of the three study samples were calculated using a Fisher's Exact test. Gene ontology was used to determine known pathways enriched in each TG-associated network.
We measured gene expression in adipose samples from two Finnish and one Mexican study sample. In each study sample, we observed a gene co-expression network that was significantly associated with serum TG levels. The TG modules observed in Finns and Mexicans significantly overlapped and shared 34 genes. Seven of the 34 genes (ARHGAP30, CCR1, CXCL16, FERMT3, HCST, RNASET2, SELPG) were identified as the key hub genes of all three TG modules. Furthermore, two of the 34 genes (ARHGAP9, LST1) reside in previous TG GWAS regions, suggesting them as the regional candidates underlying the GWAS signals.
This study presents a novel adipose gene co-expression network with 34 genes significantly correlated with serum TG across populations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23217153 View in PubMed
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Adolescent alcohol abuse and adverse adult outcomes: evaluating confounds with drinking-discordant twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262747
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Richard J Rose
Torsten Winter
Richard J Viken
Jaakko Kaprio
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Aug;38(8):2314-21
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics - psychology
Diseases in Twins - genetics - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Income
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Sexual Behavior - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Adolescent alcohol abuse is associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood, but differences in familial status and structure and household and community environments correlate with both adolescent drinking and adverse adult outcomes and may explain their association. We studied drinking-discordant twin pairs to evaluate such confounds to ask: Will between-family associations replicate in within-family comparisons?
With longitudinal data from >3,000 Finnish twins, we associated drinking problems at age 18½ with 13 outcomes assessed at age 25; included were sustained substance abuse, poor health, physical symptoms, early coital debut, multiple sexual partners, life dissatisfaction, truncated education, and financial problems. We assessed associations among twins as individuals with linear regression adjusted for correlated observations; within-family analyses of discordant twin pairs followed, comparing paired means for adult outcomes among co-twins discordant for adolescent problem drinking. Defining discordance by extreme scores on self-reported problem drinking at age 18½ permitted parallel analyses of twins as individuals and discordant twin pairs. Alternate definitions of pair-wise discordance and difference score correlations across the entire twin sample yielded supplementary analyses.
All individual associations were highly significant for all definitions of discordance we employed. Depending on definitions of discordance, 11 to 13 comparisons of all drinking-discordant twin pairs and 3 to 6 comparisons of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs replicated between-family associations. For most outcomes, effect size attenuated from individual-level analysis to that within discordant MZ twin pairs providing evidence of partial confounding in associations reported in earlier research. The exception was the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); at age 25, GHQ-12 had equivalent associations with age 18½ Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index across all comparisons.
Our analyses control for shared family background, and, partly or fully, for shared genes, to yield within-family replications and more compelling evidence than previously available that adolescent alcohol abuse disrupts transitions into early adulthood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25040879 View in PubMed
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Adolescent risk factors for episodic and persistent depression in adulthood. A 16-year prospective follow-up study of adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162236
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Feb;106(1-2):123-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Mirjami Pelkonen
Mauri Marttunen
Jaakko Kaprio
Taina Huurre
Hillevi Aro
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, Mannerheimintie 166, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Affect Disord. 2008 Feb;106(1-2):123-31
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aspirations (Psychology)
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Divorce - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Life Change Events
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Abstract
We examined mid-adolescent psychosocial problems as risk factors for subsequent depression up to adulthood proper, and differences in these for episodic and persistent depression.
In a 16-year follow-up of an urban Finnish community cohort (547 males and 714 females) from age 16 years risk factors for subsequent depression (S-BDI) were studied. Data were collected with a classroom questionnaire at 16 years and a postal questionnaire at 22 and 32 years. Differences in predictors for episodic depression (only at age of 22 or 32 y) and persistent depression (both at 22 and 32 y) were studied using logistic and multinomial regression analyses.
Mid-adolescent depressive symptoms predicted persistent and female sex episodic depression. Low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with academic achievement, problems with the law, having no dating experiences, and parental divorce all predicted both episodic and persistent depression.
We had two assessment points in adulthood, but no information about depression between these.
The associations between mid-adolescent psychosocial problems and subsequent depression extended up to adulthood proper, somewhat differently for episodic and persistent depression. Preventive efforts should be focused towards young people at risk.
PubMed ID
17659351 View in PubMed
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Adolescent risk factors for excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. A 16-year prospective follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151566
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;45(1):125-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Taina Huurre
Tomi Lintonen
Jaakko Kaprio
Mirjami Pelkonen
Mauri Marttunen
Hillevi Aro
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, 00271, Helsinki, Finland. taina.huurre@thl.fi
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;45(1):125-34
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcohol-Related Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Comorbidity
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology
Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Probability
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Social Class
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To examine which socioeconomic, family, personal and lifestyle risk factors in adolescence were the strongest independent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood.
In a prospective longitudinal study, all 16-year-olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school, and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age [n = 1,471, (females n = 805, males n = 666); response rate 70.3%). The alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was used to assess alcohol use in adulthood. AUDIT scores of 8 or more for females and 10 or more for males were classified as excessive alcohol use. Adolescent risk factors examined were parental social class, school performance, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, impulsiveness, parental divorce, relationships with parents, parental trust, health behaviour, leisure-time spent with friends, dating, and problems with the law.
All the socioeconomic, family, personal, and lifestyle variables in adolescence, except parental social class in both genders and self-esteem among females, showed significant univariate associations with excessive alcohol use at age 32 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among adolescent males, parental divorce, moderate and high level of depressive symptoms, leisure-time spent daily among friends and moderate and drunkenness-orientated drinking were the strongest predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood. Among females, the strongest adolescent predictors of excessive alcohol use in adulthood were drunkenness-orientated drinking and frequent smoking.
Early interventions for adolescent substance use and a set of specific psychosocial risk factors should be tailored and evaluated as methods for identifying those at high risk of and preventing excessive alcohol use in adulthood.
PubMed ID
19363578 View in PubMed
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Age, Sex, and Genetic and Environmental Effects on Unintentional Injuries in Young and Adult Twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298559
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2018 12; 21(6):502-506
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Date
12-2018
Author
Simo Salminen
Eero Vuoksimaa
Richard J Rose
Jaakko Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Psychology,University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2018 12; 21(6):502-506
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Environment
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Wounds and Injuries - epidemiology - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of genetic and environment influences and sex on injury involvement using two sets of Finnish twin data. The younger participants were 955 twins born between 1983 and 1987, aged 20 to 24 years. The older participants were 12,428 twins born between 1930 and 1957, aged 33 to 60 years. Within-twin correlations in monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested that genetic effects play no role in injury involvement among young twins, but do have some effect at older ages. The results indicated that environmental factors have greater importance in injury involvement than genetic factors in the younger twin data set (FT12), whereas in a middle-aged (33-60 years) twin data set, genetic effects explained about quarter of the variance in injury involvement. Sex was a strong contributing factor, with males being generally more prone to injuries than females.
PubMed ID
30428952 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a 20-year follow-up of the Finnish twin cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183513
Source
Diabetes Care. 2003 Oct;26(10):2785-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Sofia Carlsson
Niklas Hammar
Valdemar Grill
Jaakko Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Stockholm Centre of Public Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. sofia.carlsson@imm.ki.se
Source
Diabetes Care. 2003 Oct;26(10):2785-90
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Body mass index
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Questionnaires
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol consumption in relation to the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
The study population consisted of 22778 twins of the Finnish Twin Cohort. This cohort was compiled in 1975 and includes all same-sexed twins born in Finland before 1958. Information on alcohol, smoking, diet, physical activity, medical, and social conditions was obtained by questionnaires administered in 1975, 1981, and 1990. By record linkage to national registers of hospital discharge and prescribed medication, 580 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified during 20 years of follow-up.
Moderate alcohol consumption (5-29.9 g/day in men and 5-19.9 g/day in women) tended to be associated with a reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with low consumption (or=25.0 kg/m(2)) subjects (relative risk 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0 [men]; 0.6, 0.3-1.1 [women]). High alcohol consumption (>or=20 g/day) was associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in lean women (2.9, 1.1-7.5) but not in overweight women or in men. In women, binge drinking was associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (2.1, 1.0-4.4). Analyses of alcohol-discordant twin pairs supported a reduced risk in moderate consuming twins compared with their low-consuming cotwins (odds ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.5).
The results of this study suggested that moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, binge drinking and high alcohol consumption may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
PubMed ID
14514580 View in PubMed
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All-cause and disease-specific mortality among male, former elite athletes: an average 50-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271045
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2015 Jul;49(13):893-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Jyrki A Kettunen
Urho M Kujala
Jaakko Kaprio
Heli Bäckmand
Markku Peltonen
Johan G Eriksson
Seppo Sarna
Source
Br J Sports Med. 2015 Jul;49(13):893-7
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Dementia - mortality
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - mortality
Neoplasms - mortality
Sports - statistics & numerical data
Stroke - mortality
Survival Analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate life expectancy and mortality among former elite athletes and controls.
HR analysis of cause-specific deaths sourced from the national death registry for former Finnish male endurance, team and power sports athletes (N=2363) and controls (N=1657). The median follow-up time was 50 years.
Median life expectancy was higher in the endurance (79.1 years, 95% CI 76.6 to 80.6) and team (78.8, 78.1 to 79.8) sports athletes than in controls (72.9, 71.8 to 74.3). Compared to controls, risk for total mortality adjusted for socioeconomic status and birth cohort was lower in the endurance ((HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.79)) and team (0.80, 0.72 to 0.89) sports athletes, and slightly lower in the power sports athletes (0.93, 0.85 to 1.03). HR for ischaemic heart disease mortality was lower in the endurance (0.68, 0.54 to 0.86) and team sports (0.73, 0.60 to 0.89) athletes. HR for stroke mortality was 0.52 (0.33 to 0.83) in the endurance and 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88) in the team sports athletes. Compared to controls, the risk for smoking-related cancer mortality was lower in the endurance (HR 0.20, 0.08 to 0.47) and power sports (0.40, 0.25 to 0.66) athletes. For dementia mortality, the power sports athletes, particularly boxers, had increased risk (HR 4.20, 2.30 to 7.81).
Elite athletes have 5-6 years additional life expectancy when compared to men who were healthy as young adults. Lower mortality for cardiovascular disease was in part due to lower rates of smoking, as tobacco-related cancer mortality was especially low.
PubMed ID
25183628 View in PubMed
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Anorexia and bulimia nervosa in same-sex and opposite-sex twins: lack of association with twin type in a nationwide study of Finnish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154434
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;165(12):1604-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Anu Raevuori
Jaakko Kaprio
Hans W Hoek
Elina Sihvola
Aila Rissanen
Anna Keski-Rahkonen
Author Affiliation
Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr., Unit 23, New York, NY 10032, USA. anu.raevuori@helsinki.fi
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;165(12):1604-10
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anorexia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Bulimia Nervosa - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Phenotype
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Twins - genetics
Abstract
The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs.
Finnish twins (N=2,426 women, N=1,962 men with known zygosity) from birth cohorts born 1974-1979 were assessed at age 22 to 28 years with a questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms. Based on the questionnaire screen, women (N=292), men (N=53), and their cotwins were interviewed to assess diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (per DSM-IV and broad criteria).
In women from opposite-sex twin pairs, the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad anorexia nervosa was not significantly different than that of women from monozygotic pairs or same-sex dizygotic pairs. Of the five male anorexia nervosa probands, only one was from an opposite-sex twin pair. Bulimia nervosa in men was too rare to be assessed by zygosity; the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad bulimia nervosa did not differ in women from opposite- versus same-sex twin pairs. In both sexes, the overall profile of indicators on eating disorders was rather similar between individuals from opposite- and same-sex pairs.
The authors found little evidence that the risk for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or disordered eating was associated with zygosity or sex composition of twin pairs, thus making it unlikely that in utero femininization or masculinization or socialization effects of growing up with an opposite-sex twin have a major influence on the later development of eating disorders.
PubMed ID
18981064 View in PubMed
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Appetitive traits as behavioural pathways in genetic susceptibility to obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275595
Source
Sci Rep. 2015;5:14726
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Hanna Konttinen
Clare Llewellyn
Jane Wardle
Karri Silventoinen
Anni Joensuu
Satu Männistö
Veikko Salomaa
Pekka Jousilahti
Jaakko Kaprio
Markus Perola
Ari Haukkala
Source
Sci Rep. 2015;5:14726
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anthropometry
Appetite
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Feeding Behavior
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Multifactorial Inheritance
Obesity - epidemiology - genetics
Population Surveillance
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (ßindirect = 0.030-0.032, P
Notes
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PubMed ID
26423639 View in PubMed
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