Two mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene MLH1, referred to as mutations 1 and 2, are frequent among Finnish kindreds with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). In order to assess the ages and origins of these mutations, we constructed a map of 15 microsatellite markers around MLH1 and used this information in haplotype analyses of 19 kindreds with mutation 1 and 6 kindreds with mutation 2. All kindreds with mutation 1 showed a single allele for the intragenic marker D3S1611 that was not observed on any unaffected chromosome. They also shared portions of a haplotype of 4-15 markers encompassing 2.0-19.0 cM around MLH1. All kindreds with mutation 2 shared another allele for D3S1611 and a conserved haplotype of 5-14 markers spanning 2.0-15.0 cM around MLH1. The degree of haplotype conservation was used to estimate the ages of these two mutations. While some recessive disease genes have been estimated to have existed and spread for as long as thousands of generations worldwide and hundreds of generations in the Finnish population, our analyses suggest that the spread of mutation 1 started 16-43 generations (400-1,075 years) ago and that of mutation 2 some 5-21 generations (125-525 years) ago. These datings are compatible with our genealogical results identifying a common ancestor born in the 16th and 18th century, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that all Finnish kindreds studied to date showing either mutation 1 or mutation 2 are due to single ancestral founding mutations relatively recent in origin in the population. Alternatively, the mutations arose elsewhere earlier and were introduced in Finland more recently.
A susceptibility to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) was recently shown to be due to mutations in the MSH2 gene on chromosome 2p. A second susceptibility locus has been mapped to chromosome 3p in two families. The present report describes the results of a genetic study of Finnish HNPCC kindreds. Of 18 apparently unrelated families living in different parts of the country, 11 could be genealogically traced to a common ancestry dating at least 13 generations back in a small geographic area. Linkage studies were possible in 9 families, revealing conclusive or probable linkage to markers on 3p in 8. Five of these were among those having shared ancestry. The location of the gene was refined by a linkage study comprising 12 marker loci. By analysis of recombinations in such families, the HNPCC locus could be assigned to the 1-centimorgan interval between marker loci D3S1561 and D3S1298. A haplotype encompassing 10 centimorgans around the HNPCC locus was conserved in five of the pedigrees with shared ancestry and present in 2 further families in which linkage analysis was not possible. Our results suggest the presence of a widespread single ancestral founding mutation. Moreover, the map position of the 3p gene for HNPCC susceptibility was greatly refined.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which causes progressive loss of the visual fields, was subdivided into two groups according to age at onset: (1) chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 years and (2) juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) diagnosed between 3 years of age and early adulthood. A JOAG gene (GLC1A) was recently mapped to chromosome 1q. We studied 142 members of a huge multigenerational French Canadian family affected with autosomal dominant POAG. Either JOAG or COAG was diagnosed in 40 patients. Six subjects were also diagnosed with ocular hypertension (OHT), which may lead to POAG. To localize a common disease gene that might be responsible for both glaucoma subsets, we performed linkage analysis considering JOAG and COAG under the same phenotypic category. JOAG/COAG was tightly linked to seven microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 was obtained with AF-M278ye5. To refine the disease locus, we exploited a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect. The same characteristic haplotype, composed of 14 markers spanning 12 cM between loci D1S196 and D1S212, was recognized in all persons affected by JOAG, COAG, or OHT, but it did not occur in unaffected spouses and in normal family members > 35 years of age, except for three obligatory carriers. Key recombination events confined the disease region within a 9-cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S416/D1S480. These observations demonstrate that the GLC1A gene is responsible for both adult-onset and juvenile glaucomas and suggest that the JOAG and COAG categories within this family may be part of a clinical continuum artificially divided at age 40 years.
Cites: Nature. 1990 Jun 28;345(6278):823-51972783
Cites: Hum Genet. 1991 May;87(1):73-802037285
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Jul;49(1):68-752063878
Cites: Nature. 1992 Oct 29;359(6398):794-8011436057
Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome at birth. CNF represents a unique, apparently specific dysfunction of the renal basement membranes, and the estimated incidence of CNF in the isolated population of Finland is 1 in 8,000 newborns. The basic defect is unknown, and no specific biochemical defect or chromosomal aberrations have been described. Here we report the assignment of the CNF locus to 19q12-q13.1 on the basis of linkage analyses in 17 Finnish families. Multipoint analyses and observed recombination events place the CNF locus between multiallelic markers D19S416 and D19S224, and the significant linkage disequilibrium observed suggests that the CNF gene lies in the immediate vicinity of the markers D19S224 and D19S220.
We report the mapping of the locus for autosomal recessive cornea plana congenita (CNA2; MIM 217300) by linkage analysis to the approximately 10-cM interval between markers D12S82 and D12S327. The recessively inherited disorder studied here is more severe than dominant forms. Its main manifestations are reduced curvature and hazy limbus of the cornea, opacities in the corneal stroma, and marked corneal arcus at early age. Our results provide a starting point for the positional cloning of CNA2 and the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease.
Linkage studies have led to the identification of several chromosome regions that may contain susceptibility loci to type I diabetes (IDDM), in addition to the HLA and INS loci. These include two on chromosome 6q, denoted IDDM5 and IDDM8, that are not linked to HLA. In a previous study, we noticed that the evidence for linkage to IDDM susceptibility around the HLA locus extended over a total distance of 100 cM, which suggested to us that another susceptibility locus could reside near HLA. We developed a statistical method to test this hypothesis in a panel of 523 multiplex families from France, the United States, and Denmark (a total of 667 affected sib pairs, 536 with both parents genotyped), and here present evidence (P = .00003) of a susceptibility locus for IDDM located 32 cM from HLA in males but not linked to HLA in females and distinct from IDDM5 and IDDM8. A new statistical method to test for the presence of a second susceptibility locus linked to a known first susceptibility locus (here HLA) is presented. In addition, we analyzed our current family panel with markers for IDDM5 and IDDM8 on chromosome 6 and found suggestions of linkage for both of these loci (P = .002 and .004, respectively, on the complete family panel). When cumulated with previously published results, with overlapping families removed, the affected-sib-pair tests had a significance of P = .0001 for IDDM5 and P = .00004 for IDDM8.
Salla disease (SD), or adult-type free sialic acid storage disease, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by impaired transport of free sialic acid across the lysosomal membrane and severe psychomotor retardation. Random linkage analysis of a sample of 27 Finnish families allowed us to localize the SD locus to the long arm of chromosome 6. The highest lod score of 8.95 was obtained with a microsatellite marker of locus D6S286 at theta = .00. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was observed between the SD locus and the alleles of three closely linked markers, suggesting that the length of the critical region for the SD locus is in the order of 190 kb.
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Cites: Genomics. 1991 Jun;10(2):333-72071142
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Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Aug;79(15):4535-96812049
We completed a genome-wide scan for susceptibility loci for bipolar affective disorders in families derived from a rather homogeneous population in the Province of Québec. The genetic homogeneity of this population stems from the migration of founding families into this relatively isolated area of Québec in the 1830s. A possible founder effect, combined with a prevalence of very large families, makes this population ideal for linkage studies. Genealogies for probands can be readily constructed from a population database of acts of baptism and marriage from the early 1830s up to the present time (the BALSAC register). We chose probands with a DSM III diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder and who may be grouped within large families having genealogical origins with the founding population of the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean area. Living members (n approximately 120) of a very large pedigree were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III (SCID I), SCID II, and with a family history questionnaire. A diagnostic panel evaluated multisource information (interview, medical records, family history) and pronounced best-estimate consensus diagnoses on all family members. Linkage, SimAPM, SimIBD, and sib-pair analyses have been performed with 332 microsatellite probes covering the entire genome at an average spacing of 11 cM. GENEHUNTER and haplotype analyses were performed on regions of interest. Analysis of a second large pedigree in the same regions of interest permitted confirmation of presumed linkages found in the region of chromosome 12q23-q24.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome (BSCL), is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by a near-absence of adipose tissue from birth or early infancy and severe insulin resistance. Other clinical and biological features include acanthosis nigricans, hyperandrogenism, muscular hypertrophy, hepatomegaly, altered glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia. A locus (BSCL1) has been mapped to 9q34 with evidence of heterogeneity. Here, we report a genome screen of nine BSCL families from two geographical clusters (in Lebanon and Norway). We identified a new disease locus, designated BSCL2, within the 2.5-Mb interval flanked by markers D11S4076 and D11S480 on chromosome 11q13. Analysis of 20 additional families of various ethnic origins led to the identification of 11 families in which the disease cosegregates with the 11q13 locus; the remaining families provide confirmation of linkage to 9q34. Sequence analysis of genes located in the 11q13 interval disclosed mutations in a gene homologous to the murine guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), gamma3-linked gene (Gng3lg) in all BSCL2-linked families. BSCL2 is most highly expressed in brain and testis and encodes a protein (which we have called seipin) of unknown function. Most of the variants are null mutations and probably result in a severe disruption of the protein. These findings are of general importance for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of body fat distribution and insulin resistance.
Pseudo-vitamin D-deficiency rickets (PDDR) was mapped close to D12S90 and between proximal D12S312 and distal (D12S305, D12S104) microsatellites that were subsequently found on a single YAC clone. Analysis of a complex haplotype in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the disease discriminated among distinct founder effects in French Canadian populations in Acadia and in Charlevoix-Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Ch-SLSJ), as well as an earlier one in precolonial Europe. A simple demographic model suggested the historical age of the founder effect in Ch-SLSJ to be approximately 12 generations. The corresponding LD data are consistent with this figure when they are analyzed within the framework of Luria-Delbrück model, which takes into account the population growth. Population sampling due to a limited number of first settlers and the rapid demographic expansion appear to have played a major role in the founding of PDDR in Ch-SLSJ and, presumably, other genetic disorders endemic to French Canada. Similarly, the founder effect in Ashkenazim, coinciding with their early settlement in medieval Poland and subsequent expansion eastward, could explain the origin of frequent genetic diseases in this population.
Cites: J Pediatr. 1981 Jul;99(1):26-346265615
Cites: Am J Hum Genet. 1985 May;37(3):482-983859205