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Alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions among people living in Russia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263496
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Chiao-Wen Lan
Lori A J Scott-Sheldon
Kate B Carey
Blair T Johnson
Michael P Carey
Source
AIDS Behav. 2014 Oct;18(10):1835-46
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Condoms - utilization
European Continental Ancestry Group
HIV Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Prostitution - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Risk Reduction Behavior
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24104461 View in PubMed
Less detail

An international comparison of the Ohio department of aging-resident satisfaction survey: applicability in a U.S. and Canadian sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118527
Source
Gerontologist. 2013 Dec;53(6):1032-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Heather A Cooke
Takashi Yamashita
J Scott Brown
Jane K Straker
Susan Baiton Wilkinson
Author Affiliation
*Address correspondence to Takashi Yamashita, Department of Sociology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 455033, Las Vegas, NV 89154. E-mail: takashi.yamashita@unlv.edu.
Source
Gerontologist. 2013 Dec;53(6):1032-45
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Allied Health Personnel - standards
Assisted Living Facilities - standards
British Columbia
Female
Humans
Long-Term Care - organization & administration
Male
Ohio
Personal Satisfaction
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Residential Facilities - standards
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The majority of resident satisfaction surveys available for use in assisted living settings have been developed in the United States; however, empirical assessment of their measurement properties remains limited and sporadic, as does knowledge regarding their applicability for use in settings outside of the United States. This study further examines the psychometric properties of the Ohio Department of Aging-Resident Satisfaction Survey (ODA-RSS) and explores its applicability within a sample of Canadian assisted living facilities.
Data were collected from 9,739 residential care facility (RCF) residents in Ohio, United States and 938 assisted-living residents in British Columbia, Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the instrument's psychometric properties within the 2 samples.
Although the ODA-RSS appears well suited for assessing resident satisfaction in Ohio RCFs, it is less so in British Columbia assisted living settings. Adequate reliability and validity were observed for all 8 measurable instrument domains in the Ohio sample, but only 4 (Care and Services, Employee Relations, Employee Responsiveness, and Communications) in the British Columbia sample.
The ODA-RSS performs best in an environment that encompasses a wide range of RCF types. In settings where greater uniformity and standardization exist, more nuanced questions may be required to detect variation between facilities. It is not sufficient to assume that rigorous development and empirical testing of a tool ensures its applicability in states or countries other than that in which it was initially developed.
PubMed ID
23197393 View in PubMed
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An international invasive meningococcal disease outbreak due to a novel and rapidly expanding serogroup W strain, Scotland and Sweden, July to August 2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281859
Source
Euro Surveill. 2016 Nov 10;21(45)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-10-2016
Author
Jay Lucidarme
Kevin J Scott
Roisin Ure
Andrew Smith
Diane Lindsay
Bianca Stenmark
Susanne Jacobsson
Hans Fredlund
J Claire Cameron
Alison Smith-Palmer
Jim McMenamin
Steve J Gray
Helen Campbell
Shamez Ladhani
Jamie Findlow
Paula Mölling
Ray Borrow
Source
Euro Surveill. 2016 Nov 10;21(45)
Date
Nov-10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Disease Outbreaks
Genes, Bacterial
Genome, Viral
Genotype
Global health
Humans
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Molecular Epidemiology
Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup W-135 - classification - genetics - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Phylogeny
Scotland - epidemiology
Serogroup
Serotyping
Sweden - epidemiology
Travel
Virulence - genetics
Abstract
The 23rd World Scout Jamboree in 2015 took place in Japan and included over 33,000 scouts from 162 countries. Within nine days of the meeting ending, six cases of laboratory-confirmed invasive serogroup W meningococcal disease occurred among scouts and their close contacts in Scotland and Sweden. The isolates responsible were identical to one-another by routine typing and, where known (4 isolates), belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) which is associated with large outbreaks and high case fatality rates. Recent studies have demonstrated the need for high-resolution genomic typing schemes to assign serogroup W cc11 isolates to several distinct strains circulating globally over the past two decades. Here we used such schemes to confirm that the Jamboree-associated cases constituted a genuine outbreak and that this was due to a novel and rapidly expanding strain descended from the strain that has recently expanded in South America and the United Kingdom. We also identify the genetic differences that define the novel strain including four point mutations and three putative recombination events involving the horizontal exchange of 17, six and two genes, respectively. Noteworthy outcomes of these changes were antigenic shifts and the disruption of a transcriptional regulator.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27918265 View in PubMed
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An investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in people and pets in the same household with an infected person or infected pet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148824
Source
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Sep 1;235(5):540-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2009
Author
Meredith C Faires
Kathy C Tater
J Scott Weese
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
Source
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Sep 1;235(5):540-3
Date
Sep-1-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Canada - epidemiology
Carrier state
Cat Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Cats
Cross Infection
Dog Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Dogs
Family Characteristics
Humans
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission - veterinary
United States - epidemiology
Zoonoses
Abstract
To investigate the prevalence of concurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in people and pets in the same household with a person or pet with an MRSA infection and to compare MRSA isolates by use of molecular techniques.
2 cross-sectional evaluations conducted concurrently.
24 dogs, 10 cats, and 56 humans in part 1 and 21 dogs, 4 cats, and 16 humans in part 2 of the study.
In both parts of the study, nasal swab specimens were collected from humans and nasal and rectal swab specimens were collected from household pets. Selective culture for MRSA was performed, and isolates were typed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing. Households were defined as positive when MRSA was isolated from at least 1 person (part 1) or 1 pet (part 2).
In part 1, 6 of 22 (27.3%) households were identified with MRSA colonization in a person. In these households, 10 of 56 (17.9%) humans, 2 of 24 (8.3%) dogs, and 1 of 10 (10%) cats were colonized with MRSA. In part 2, only 1 of 8 households was identified with MRSA colonization in a pet. Most MRSA isolates obtained from humans and pets in the same household were indistinguishable by use of PFGE.
The high prevalence of concurrent MRSA colonization as well as identification of indistinguishable strains in humans and pet dogs and cats in the same household suggested that interspecies transmission of MRSA is possible. Longitudinal studies are required to identify factors associated with interspecies transmission.
PubMed ID
19719444 View in PubMed
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The assessment of airway maneuvers and interventions in university Canadian football, ice hockey, and soccer players.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136307
Source
J Athl Train. 2011 Mar-Apr;46(2):117-25
Publication Type
Article
Author
J Scott Delaney
Ammar Al-Kashmiri
Penny-Jane Baylis
Tracy Troutman
Mahmood Aljufaili
José A Correa
Author Affiliation
McGill Sport Medicine Clinic and Department of Emergency Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada. j.delaney@mcgill.ca
Source
J Athl Train. 2011 Mar-Apr;46(2):117-25
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Airway Management - methods
Athletes
Athletic Injuries - therapy
Canada
Cross-Over Studies
Female
Football
Head Protective Devices
Hockey
Humans
Male
Pulmonary Ventilation
Resuscitation - methods
Soccer
Sports Equipment
Unconsciousness - therapy
Universities
Young Adult
Abstract
Managing an airway in an unconscious athlete is a lifesaving skill that may be made more difficult by the recent changes in protective equipment. Different airway maneuvers and techniques may be required to help ventilate an unconscious athlete who is wearing full protective equipment.
To assess the effectiveness of different airway maneuvers with football, ice hockey, and soccer players wearing full protective equipment.
Crossover study.
University sports medicine clinic.
A total of 146 university varsity athletes, consisting of 62 football, 45 ice hockey, and 39 soccer players.
Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three investigators then evaluated the effectiveness of different bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation techniques in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while inline cervical spine immobilization was maintained.
The effectiveness of 1-person BVM ventilation (1-BVM), 2-person BVM ventilation (2-BVM), and inline immobilization and ventilation (IIV) was judged by each investigator for each athlete using a 4-point rating scale.
All forms of ventilation were least difficult in soccer players and most difficult in football players. When compared with 1-BVM, both 2-BVM and IIV were deemed more effective by all investigators for all athletes. Interference from the helmet and stabilizer were common reasons for difficult ventilation in football and ice hockey players.
Sports medicine professionals should practice and be comfortable with different ventilation techniques for athletes wearing full equipment. The use of a new ventilation technique, termed inline immobilization and ventilation, may be beneficial, especially when the number of responders is limited.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21391796 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bayesian small area cluster analysis of neural tube defects in Newfoundland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166402
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Sep-Oct;97(5):393-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
J Scott Sloka
Marian Crowley
Bridget Fernandez
Falah Maroun
Author Affiliation
Department of Neurology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's. p97jss@mun.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Sep-Oct;97(5):393-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bayes Theorem
Cluster analysis
Female
Folic Acid - therapeutic use
Humans
Incidence
Infant, Newborn
Male
Neural Tube Defects - epidemiology - prevention & control
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vitamin B Complex - therapeutic use
Abstract
The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is declining worldwide due to the implementation of folic acid supplementation programs. Such a program was implemented over 1996-97 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The geographical distribution of birth incidence was studied prior to and after the implementation of the program to identify regions of residual high incidence. Excess residual cases may potentially be due to genetic causes or incomplete supplementation program implementation.
Maternal place of residence for all provincial live birth and stillbirth notifications, provincial maternal-fetal medicine referrals, provincial rehabilitation referrals, and all provincial hospitals with NTDs or terminations for NTDs was obtained from 1975 to 2002 for near complete case ascertainment. Bayesian small area analysis was separately performed on cases from 1975-1996 and 1997-2002. The two time periods were compared.
Birth incidence of NTDs was noted to decline after 1996, from 5.54/1000 live births to 1.08/1000 live births. 592 cases were found from 1975-1996 and 34 cases from 1997-2002. Relative risk of birth incidence was 0.93-1.18 (95% CI) for 1975-1996 and 0.97-1.02 for 1997-2002 after Bayesian smoothing. One region had an excess of residual cases greater than 34%.
The implications of this observation to the management of the public health initiative imply that overall response to the decrease in cases tends to be uniform across the province, with potentially one area of interest where extra efforts may be devoted.
PubMed ID
17120879 View in PubMed
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A benefit-cost analysis of two-dose measles immunization in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204970
Source
Vaccine. 1998 May-Jun;16(9-10):989-96
Publication Type
Article
Author
L. Pelletier
P. Chung
P. Duclos
P. Manga
J. Scott
Author Affiliation
Division of Immunization, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (LCDC), Ottawa, Canada.
Source
Vaccine. 1998 May-Jun;16(9-10):989-96
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Disease Outbreaks - economics - prevention & control
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Measles - economics - epidemiology - prevention & control
Measles Vaccine - administration & dosage - economics
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
Mumps - economics - prevention & control
Mumps Vaccine - administration & dosage - economics
Rubella - economics - prevention & control
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital - economics - prevention & control
Rubella Vaccine - administration & dosage - economics
Sensitivity and specificity
Vaccines, Combined - administration & dosage - economics
Abstract
In 1992, because of the limitations of the one-dose measles immunization program, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommended a two-dose measles immunization program to eliminate measles. More recently, NACI recommended also a special catch-up program to prevent predicted measles outbreaks and to achieve an earlier elimination of measles. The objective of this study was to complete a benefit-cost analysis of a two-dose immunization program with and without a mass catch-up compaign compared with the current one-dose program. The resulting benefit: cost ratios vary between 2.61:1 and 4.31:1 depending on the strategy used and the age of the children targeted. Given the parameters established for this analysis, the benefits of a second-dose vaccination program against measles far outweight the costs of such a program under all scenarios.
PubMed ID
9682349 View in PubMed
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Canada: status of cancer pain and palliative care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220637
Source
J Pain Symptom Manage. 1993 Aug;8(6):395-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Author
B M Mount
J. Scott
S R Cohen
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Pain Symptom Manage. 1993 Aug;8(6):395-8
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Curriculum
Education, Medical
Health Services Accessibility
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Neoplasms - therapy
Palliative Care - trends
Notes
Comment In: J Pain Symptom Manage. 1994 Jul;9(5):291-27525786
PubMed ID
7525759 View in PubMed
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Canadian Optically-guided approach for Oral Lesions Surgical (COOLS) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130191
Source
BMC Cancer. 2011;11:462
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Catherine F Poh
J Scott Durham
Penelope M Brasher
Donald W Anderson
Kenneth W Berean
Calum E MacAulay
J Jack Lee
Miriam P Rosin
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Biological and Medical Science, The University of British Columbia, Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, Canada. cpoh@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
BMC Cancer. 2011;11:462
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Carcinoma in Situ - surgery
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - surgery
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Double-Blind Method
Fluorescence
Head and Neck Neoplasms - surgery
Humans
Mouth Neoplasms - surgery
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Surgery, Computer-Assisted - economics - methods
Abstract
Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 30-60%, and has remained unchanged in the past few decades. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and high recurrence of the disease. Of the patients who receive treatment, up to one third suffer from a recurrence or a second primary tumor. It is apparent that one major cause of disease recurrence is clinically unrecognized field changes which extend beyond the visible tumor boundary. We have previously developed an approach using fluorescence visualization (FV) technology to improve the recognition of the field at risk surrounding a visible oral cancer that needs to be removed and preliminary results have shown a significant reduction in recurrence rates.
This paper describes the study design of a randomized, multi-centre, double blind, controlled surgical trial, the COOLS trial. Nine institutions across Canada will recruit a total of 400 patients with oral severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (N = 160) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (N = 240). Patients will be stratified by participating institution and histology grade and randomized equally into FV-guided surgery (experimental arm) or white light-guided surgery (control arm). The primary endpoint is a composite of recurrence at or 1 cm within the previous surgery site with 1) the same or higher grade histology compared to the initial diagnosis (i.e., the diagnosis used for randomization); or 2) further treatment due to the presence of severe dysplasia or higher degree of change at follow-up. This is the first randomized, multi-centre trial to validate the effectiveness of the FV-guided surgery.
In this paper we described the strategies, novelty, and challenges of this unique trial involving a surgical approach guided by the FV technology. The success of the trial requires training, coordination, and quality assurance across multiple sites within Canada. The COOLS trial, an example of translational research, may result in reduced recurrence rates following surgical treatment of early-stage oral cancer with significant impacts on survival, morbidity, patients' quality of life and the cost to the health care system.
Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01039298.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22026481 View in PubMed
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A Canadian Working Group report on fecal microbial therapy: microbial ecosystems therapeutics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122566
Source
Can J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;26(7):457-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Emma Allen-Vercoe
Gregor Reid
Norman Viner
Gregory B Gloor
Susy Hota
Peter Kim
Christine Lee
Kieran O'Doherty
Stephen J Vanner
J Scott Weese
Elaine O Petrof
Author Affiliation
University of Guelph, Guelph.
Source
Can J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jul;26(7):457-62
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Computational Biology
Congresses as topic
Ecosystem
Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous - therapy
Feces - microbiology
Gastroenterology - ethics - trends
Humans
Metagenome
Abstract
A working group from across Canada comprised of clinician and basic scientists, epidemiologists, ethicists, Health Canada regulatory authorities and representatives of major funding agencies (Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of Canada) met to review the current experience with fecal microbial therapy and to identify the key areas of study required to move this field forward. The report highlights the promise of fecal microbial therapy and related synthetic stool therapy (together called 'microbial ecosystems therapeutics') for the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis and, possibly, other disorders. It identifies pressing clinical issues that need to be addressed as well as social, ethical and regulatory barriers to the use of these important therapies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22803022 View in PubMed
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