This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men.
At the baseline visit of an HIV study among men who have sex with men, we asked about HBV vaccination status and tested for HBV markers.
Of 625 subjects, 48% had received at least 1 dose of HBV vaccine. Of 328 unvaccinated men, 41% had 1 or more HBV markers. HBV prevalence increased markedly with age and was associated with many sexual and drug-related behaviors. In a multivariate model, 7 variables were independently associated with HBV infection: ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 10.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6, 54); injection drug use (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.2, 26); gonorrhea or chlamydia (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.9, 8.9); sexual partner with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.8, 7.1); 50 or more casual partners (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 7.1); received money for sex (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.2, 7.8); and 20 or more regular partners (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 6.1).
In Montreal, men who have sex with men are at risk for HBV infection, but a substantial proportion remain unvaccinated; new strategies are required to improve coverage. Men who have sex with men and who have a sexually transmitted infection, especially a genito-ulcerative infection, appear to be at particularly high risk for HBV infection.
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1994 Sep-Oct;85(5):338-417804940
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1999 Jul;26(6):317-2410417018
Recent research on the contraceptive practices of Hispanics adolescents living in Latin America and the United-States indicates that their practices are inadequate. However, contraceptive practices can vary according to levels of traditionalism and acculturation. In order to verify these hypotheses, the contraceptive behaviors of a group of 114 young adults from both genders of Hispanic origin were evaluated. Results indicate that half of the participants did not use any contraceptive method during the first intercourse and that condoms were the most common method. Contrary to American results, acculturation levels were not significant in contraceptive use. Degree of traditionalism in sexual roles was more significant.
To assess characteristics associated with 1) age and 2) recent unprotected anal sex with casual partners among men having sexual relations with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
The Omega Cohort is a study of the incidence and psychosocial determinants of HIV infection among MSM living in Montréal. MSM complete a questionnaire and are tested for HIV every 6 months.
Thirteen percent of young MSM ( or = 30 years of age, n = 455) reported recent unprotected anal sex with casual partners. The predictors of this latter behavior were: not living with a male sexual partner, unprotected anal sex with regular partner, > 5 casual partners, alcohol/drug use before anal sex, and having difficulties with procedures needed for safe sex. Among young MSM, additional predictors were: to have been living in Montreal for less than 1 year and to have exchanged money for sex. Among older MSM, additional predictors were: female sexual partners, unprotected anal sex with an HIV-infected partner, and feeling invulnerable to AIDS.
Young Omega participants do not have more risky behaviors than older participants. Some predictors of recent risk behaviors with casual partners were different between the two groups. Prevention programs should be adapted consequently.
Recent increases in rates of unprotected anal sex (UAS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) signal the need to continually refine our understanding of factors associated with risky sexual behavior. Data were collected using a questionnaire eliciting information about the last sexual episode (LSE) with another man in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to identify both event-level and background correlates of UAS at LSE. 965 participants who reported having sex with a partner with whom they were not in a couple relationship at LSE were studied. Several event-level variables were significantly associated with UAS after adjusting for background factors, including finding the partner at LSE sexually attractive and using alcohol or cocaine at LSE. Our findings parallel the results of other HIV prevention studies which have highlighted the importance of interpersonal factors that influence risk-taking at the moment of a sexual act among MSM.
The purpose of the study was to identify the determinants of intention to have a low-fat diet in 30- to 60-year-old men.
The survey design was cross-sectional and consisted of a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable was the intention to have a low-fat diet within the next 4 months, and the independent variables were those suggested by the theory of planned behavior.
The study population was drawn from three districts representing a modal sample of Laval, the second most populous city (N = 314,398) in the province of Quebec.
The sample comprised 3200 people. Of the 3200 questionnaires sent out, 2583 were received and 2269 were eligible (i.e., were answered by 30- to 60-year-old men), giving a response rate of 70.9%. Of the 2269 questionnaires, 430 were incomplete, resulted in 1839 being usable for analysis.
Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable, the intention to have a low-fat diet. The independent variables were (1) direct and indirect determinants of intention as suggested in the theory of planned behavior and (2) sociodemographic and concomitant variables and their interactions. Discriminant analysis was used on the significant variables obtained in the regression to establish the cognitive profile of respondents' intention, strong or weak.
In the final model, five variables 51% of the total variance. Respondents who had a stronger intention perceived that their important referents would approve them having a low-fat diet. They scored higher in seeing the advantages of adopting the target behavior and had a more positive attitude toward the behavior. They also perceived themselves as having control over the target behavior, and scored higher in terms of recognizing the perceived power of this control factor.
The results suggests that the theory of planned behavior can be an effective tool in the planning of heart health promotion. They indicate that low-fat diet programs for men should target the work site and peer-group organizations, and place emphasis on adapting usual recipes. Though accenting the health and nutritional benefits of a low-fat diet, messages should appeal to emotion as well as reason.
This study evaluated a four-year bicycle helmet promotion campaign.
Children's attitudes, social norms, intentions to wear a bicycle helmet as well as helmet ownership were measured. Evaluation was based on a pre-experimental static group comparison design repeated at two (1991) and four years (1993) after implantation, with a non-randomized control group. 3,424 students completed a self-administered questionnaire (experimental: 2,097, control: 1,327).
The program had a significant impact on helmet ownership (1989: 4%; 1991: 26%; 1993: 56%). The program was the principal predictor of high intention to use a bicycle helmet. Time was the principal predictor of ownership with exposure to the program being the next predictor.
This study showed that time is an important factor in bicycle helmet acquisition, and that a long-term community-based program can accelerate the process of adopting this behaviour.
The effectiveness of an intervention based upon the theories of Ajzen and Triandis was evaluated among 698 junior and 306 senior high school students. The intervention to juniors was offered by senior students who were trained during a course integrated into the school curriculum. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed a questionnaire at baseline and 9 months after the program. Compared to junior respondents in the control group, those in the experimental group positively modified their attitude, perceived behavioral control, personal normative beliefs, perceived role beliefs, anticipated regret and intention with respect to postponing sexual intercourse and with respect to condom use, as well as perceived self-efficacy to negotiate both behaviors. Compared to senior respondents in the control group, those in the experimental group showed a significant positive modification of all the above variables except perceived behavioral control (indirect measure), anticipated regret and intention with respect to postponing sexual intercourse. At post-test, seniors in the experimental group were more likely to use condoms on a regular basis than those in the control group. Program effects occurred among both sexes, but a few differences in response were observed among males and females. Results suggest this type of theory-based program is effective in modifying psychosocial variables related to postponing sexual intercourse and related to condom use among adolescents. Personal involvement in designing intervention appears to be effective in modifying the behavior of peer educators.
To determine factors associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination status among HIV-uninfected men who have affective and sexual relations with men (MASM) in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The Omega Cohort is a study of the incidence and psychosocial determinants of HIV infection among MASM in Montreal. Participants complete a questionnaire and are HIV-tested every 6 months. At baseline, we also performed testing for HBV markers and collected data on HBV vaccination history.
Forty-six percent of 653 participants had received at least one dose of HBV vaccination, whereas 28% were completely vaccinated. Lack of vaccination was associated with injection drug use, having > or =20 regular lifetime partners, living outside Montreal, not having sex in bathhouses, and not having consulted a physician aware of the participant's sexual orientation. Among vaccinated MASM, incomplete vaccination was associated with having
There is a dearth of information on the HIV risk-taking behaviour of foreign-born men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada. This study focused on identifying sexual risk behaviour among MSM who immigrated to Canada and compared them to MSM who were born in Canada. Baseline data from the Omega Cohort in Montreal and the Vanguard Project in Vancouver were combined to form four ethnicity/race analytical categories (n = 1,148): White born in Canada (WBIC), White born outside of Canada, non-White born in Canada (NBIC) and non-White born outside of Canada (NBOC). Psychological, demographic and sexual behaviour characteristics of the groups were similar except: NBOC were more likely to be unemployed, less likely to be tattooed, had fewer bisexual experiences and less likely worried of insufficient funds. WBOC were more likely to report unprotected sex with seropositives and more likely to have had unprotected sex while travelling. NBIC were more likely to have ever sold sex and to have had body piercing. WBOC are at high risk of acquiring as well as transmitting HIV. It is important to consider place of birth in addition to ethnicity when developing programmes to prevent the transmission of HIV.