To describe adolescent knowledge, attitudes and behavior relevant to sexuality and the prevention of AIDS in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed, taking a random sample of 10th grade students at 14 Saint Petersburg grade schools, which were stratified by socio-economic district. A total of 185 female and 185 male students completed a self-administered 46-item questionnaire, with a response rate of 94%.
From the questionnaires, 20% of females and 31% of males reported having had sexual intercourse and 25% of females and 12% of males reported being sexually abused. These adolescents displayed much misinformation about sexual matters and AIDS prevention. Only 25% of the females and 34% of the males believed that condoms should be used just once, and 38% of each sex believed that if washed, they could be used multiple times. Many respondents, especially males, rated their knowledge about sexual matters as high or adequate. Support for sex education was strong, especially among females, and respondents generally saw sex education as improving sexual pleasure. Most information sources about sexual activity were either not considered very credible, or not adequately accessible.
Substantial reported rates of sexual abuse, sexual experience and much misinformation and unwarranted attitudes toward condoms, safer sexual practices and HIV/AIDS suggest the need for vigorous sex education programs for Russian youth. The early and sustained education of girls is especially important. Sex education should be introduced at an early age so that children can be taught how to reduce the risks of sexual abuse, HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, and to improve their sexual experiences as responsible adults.
Using the Miller Patient Classification framework, a descriptive three-phase study was carried out in order to develop a classification system specifically for the PACU of the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario. This study contributes further understanding of the complexities of developing a reliable classification system for the pediatric PACU.
This study examines the relationships between stated restorative treatment thresholds of 16 dentists and both their restorative decisions and caries depth determinations for approximal tooth surfaces based on bitewing radiographs.
Sixteen dentists independently examined 15 pairs of experimental bitewing radiographs. They separately recorded restorative and dental caries depth decisions for 4,864 unrestored approximal tooth surfaces, 304 identical surfaces per dentist. In addition to caries depth and restorative decision data, these dentists provided their restorative thresholds using a five-point scale.
Three dentists stated it would be appropriate to restore enamel lesions, nine would wait until caries had reached the dentinoenamel junction, and four would wait until caries extended into the dentine. Although dentists stating an enamel restorative threshold intended definitely or probably to restore relatively more surfaces and recorded relatively more surfaces with dentinal caries, ANOVA analyses revealed that the differences among the restorative and the depth means according to the restorative thresholds were not significant. Considerable variation existed in both the restorative and depth decisions among the dentists in each threshold group.
Although interesting trends occurred in the restorative and depth decisions relative to the stated thresholds, this study suggests, like others in Europe, that these thresholds cannot be taken at face value to explain restorative decisions.
Restorative and dental caries depth decisions were recorded for 5168 un restored approximal tooth surfaces by 17 dentists who worked in the school dental clinics of the North York (Ontario) Public Health Department. Each dentist examined 15 pairs of experimental bitewing radiographs for which true caries depth had previously been determined by microscopy of the sectioned teeth following production of the radiographs. The dentists independently recorded their restorative decisions and radiographic caries depth perceptions. The relationship between the variation in the dentists' restorative decisions and their perceptions of caries depth based on a re-reading of the bitewings on the one hand, and true caries depth on the other was also examined. The percentages of total variability in each dentist's restorative decisions attributable to radiographic and to microscopic caries depth were estimated using regression analyses. Large variations were found among the 17 dentists' distributions of overall restorative and depth decisions. The relationship between microscopic caries depth and the dentists' restorative decisions was, understandably, less strong than that of the dentists radiographic perceptions of caries depth and restorative decisions. Relative to true caries depth, high numbers of false positive and false negative restorative decisions were made. Overall, 50% of the variability in the dentists' restorative decisions was explained by the perceptions of radiographic caries depth; however, among individual dentists, the range was from 29% for one dentist to 69% for another. A much lower percentage of the overall restorative variation was explained by microscopic depth, 18%. Like the finding of the only two previous European studies that quantified the role of radiographs on clinical decisions, this study demonstrated that dentists' perceptions of dental caries depth using bitewing radiographs play a major but variable role in their restorative decisions for approximal tooth surfaces.
While substantial proportions of the population of Ontario, Canada continue to have teeth extracted, little is known about the reasons for this loss. In this survey of Ontario general dental practitioners, 128 dentists provided information on 6143 patients they saw during a reference week. Approximately one-in-seven of these patients had or were going to have one or more extractions as part of their current course of treatment. The mean number of extractions for patients having at least one tooth taken out was 2.3 (SD = 2.5). Emergency patients were more likely than regular patients to have at least one extraction but, on average, had fewer teeth taken out. Orthodontic considerations were the main reason for tooth loss in childhood, caries continued to be an important cause of tooth loss at all ages and periodontal disease accounted for more teeth lost after 40 years of age than caries. This study differs from almost all others in finding that, overall, more permanent teeth were extracted because of periodontal disease than because of caries. The former accounted for 35.9% of teeth lost and the latter for 28.9%. While this may be due to methodological differences between this and other studies, it is consistent with epidemiological data on periodontal disease in the Ontario population and data showing that Ontarians receive little in the way of periodontal care.
In a study of tooth extractions in general dental practices in Ontario, Canada, 165 dental practitioners provided information on 6134 patients attending during a reference week. Of these, 11.6 per cent of patients had one or more permanent teeth extracted. Periodontal disease was given as the reason for 35.9 per cent of these extractions and caries for 28.9 per cent. Analysis by tooth type showed that third molars were the most common tooth type extracted. However, there were differences in the types of teeth extracted by age. Posterior teeth were most frequently lost by the younger age groups and anterior teeth by older subjects. There were also differences in the reasons for the loss of different tooth types. A comparison of these results with those of a similar study in Scotland suggests that age and tooth type does not account for the excess of extractions due to periodontal disease in this Canadian population. Differences in practice patterns and attitudes towards the retention of teeth may be contributing factors.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether or not education about the concept of uncertainty reduced variability in treatment decision-making. Three small groups of dentists in North York, Canada were asked to make restorative treatment decisions about simulated bitewing radiographs. They subsequently took part in a seminar about variations in perception and judgement and were given explanations of sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A repeat reading of the radiographs was then performed by both test and control groups. Results indicated that the intervention increased the accuracy, and decreased the variability of dentists' restorative treatment decisions. Kappa statistics were 0.33, 0.34 and 0.31 before the seminar, and 0.40, 0.43 and 0.41 after the seminar. Standard errors for kappas were 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 before the seminar, and 0.02, 0.02 and 0.05 after the seminar. The area under the ROC curve was 0.7136 before the seminar and 0.7835 after the seminar. The data demonstrate that the dentists' decisions were less variable and more accurate following the educative intervention. This study suggests that there is potential for improving consistency and accuracy in clinical decision-making through education in probabilistic reasoning.
Variations between dentists in treatment thresholds and diagnostic decisions based on radiographs have not been fully explained. Since variations have been shown to exist between as well as within countries, it is possible that the structure of incentives inherent in different health care systems, and cultural influences on health and health care may play a part. This paper compares the results of a study undertaken in Scotland with a replication study undertaken in Canada concerning dentists' restorative thresholds and treatment decisions based on radiographic evidence. The Canadian dentists operated with greater sensitivity but lower specificity than their Scottish counterparts, although ROC analysis indicated similar overall abilities to detect carious lesions. The dentists' action thresholds also differed. However, methodological issues mean that the data from the study need to be interpreted with caution.