This study set out to estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R major depressive episode (MDE) and to analyse factors associating with psychosocial impairment, episode duration, phenomenology and symptom severity in a representative general population sample of adolescents (15-19-year-olds) and young adults (20-24-year-olds).
The Finnish Health Care Survey '96 (FINHCS '96) was a cross-sectional nationwide epidemiological study. A random sample of 509 adolescents and 433 young adults was interviewed in 1996. MDE was assessed by University of Michigan Composite Diagnostic Interview Short-Form.
The 12-month prevalence of MDE was 5.3 % for adolescents (females 6.0%, males 4.4%) and 9.4% for young adults (females 10.7%, males 8.1%). When moderate psychosocial impairment was included in case definition, the prevalences were lowered by 20-25%. Increased impairment was associated with drunkenness at least twice a month, a higher mean number of depressive symptoms and impaired concentration. The median episode duration was 1 month. No factors associating with duration were found. With the exception of symptoms related to appetite being more common among females than males, the phenomenology of MDE was mainly independent of age and gender.
Episodes of major depression among adolescents and young adults in the general population are short but often associated with psychosocial impairment, especially if frequent drunkenness coexists.
This study reports the 12-month prevalence of major depressive episode and its risk factors in a representative nationwide sample.
A random sample of non-institutionalized Finnish individuals aged 15-75 years (N = 5993) was interviewed in 1996. Major depressive episode during the last 12 months was assessed using the Short Form of the University of Michigan version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (the UM-CIDI Short Form).
The population prevalence of major depressive episode was 9.3% [95% CI 8.5,10.0], and the age-adjusted prevalences for females and males were 10.9% [95% CI 9.7,12.0] and 7.2 [95% CI 6.2,8.2], respectively. In logistic regression analyses the factors associated with major depressive episode after adjustment for age were urban residency, smoking, alcohol intoxication and chronic medical conditions. In addition, being single and obese were found to be risk factors for males.
The female to male risk ratio for major depressive episode was smaller than in many previous studies. The sex-specific risk factor associations warrant further investigation into sex differences in depression.
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether disc degeneration, as assessed through magnetic resonance imaging, is greater in smokers than in nonsmokers. To control for the maximum number of potentially confounding variables, pairs of identical twins highly discordant for cigarette smoking were selected as study subjects. Data analyses revealed 18% greater mean disc degeneration scores in the lumbar spines of smokers as compared with nonsmokers. The effect was present across the entire lumbar spine, implicating a mechanism acting systemically. This investigation demonstrates the efficiency of using carefully selected controls in studying conditions of multifactorial etiology, such as disc degeneration.
The effects of acquired obesity on lipid profile and lipoprotein composition in rare BMI-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were studied.
Abdominal fat distribution, liver fat (magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy), fasting serum lipid profile (ultracentrifugation, gradient gel-electrophoresis, and colorimetric enzymatic methods), and lifestyle factors (questionnaires and diaries) were assessed in 15 BMI-discordant (within-pair difference [?] in BMI >3 kg/m2) and nin concordant (?BMI
Adipocyte size and number have been suggested to predict the development of metabolic complications in obesity. However, the genetic and environmental determinants behind this phenomenon remain unclear.
We studied this question in rare-weight discordant (intra-pair difference (?) body mass index (BMI) 3-10 kg m(-2), n=15) and concordant (?BMI 0-2 kg m(-)(2), n=5) young adult (22-35 years) monozygotic twin pairs identified from 10 birth cohorts of Finnish twins (n=5 500 pairs). Subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size from surgical biopsies was measured under a light microscope. Adipocyte number was calculated from cell size and total body fat (D ? A).
The concordant pairs were remarkably similar for adipocyte size and number (intra-class correlations 0.91-0.92, P
To examine whether adolescent flexibility, endurance strength, and physical activity can predict the later occurrence of recurrent low back pain, tension neck, or knee injury.
In 1976, 520 men and 605 women participated in a sit and reach test (flexibility) and a 30 second sit up test (endurance strength). In 1976 and 2001 (aged 37 and 42 years) they completed a questionnaire. Lifetime occurrence and risk of self reported low back pain and self reported, physician diagnosed tension neck and knee injury were calculated for subjects divided into tertiles by baseline results of strength and flexibility tests.
Men from the highest baseline flexibility tertile were at lower risk of tension neck than those from the lowest tertile (odds ratio (OR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28 to 0.93). Women from the highest baseline endurance strength tertile were at lower risk of tension neck than those from the lowest tertile (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.91). Men from the highest baseline endurance strength tertile were at higher risk of knee injury than those from the lowest tertile (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.64). Men who at school age participated in physical activity were at lower risk of recurrent low back pain (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.88) than those who did not.
Overall good flexibility in boys and good endurance strength in girls may contribute to a decreased risk of tension neck. High endurance strength in boys may indicate an increased risk of knee injury.
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Alcohol intake may be associated with cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between midlife alcohol intake and drinking patterns with future prostate cancer risk and mortality in a population-based cohort of Finnish twins.
Data were drawn from the Older Finnish Twin Cohort and included 11,372 twins followed from 1981 to 2012. Alcohol consumption was assessed by questionnaires administered at two time points over follow-up. Over the study period, 601 incident cases of prostate cancer and 110 deaths from prostate cancer occurred. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between weekly alcohol intake and binge drinking patterns with prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Within-pair co-twin analyses were performed to control for potential confounding by shared genetic and early environmental factors.
Compared to light drinkers (=3 drinks/week; non-abstainers), heavy drinkers (>14 drinks/week) were at a 1.46-fold higher risk (HR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.91) of prostate cancer, adjusting for important confounders. Among current drinkers, binge drinkers were at a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (HR 1.28; 95 % CI 1.06, 1.55) compared to non-binge drinkers. Abstainers were at a 1.90-fold higher risk (HR 1.90; 95 % CI 1.04, 3.47) of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light drinkers, but no other significant associations for mortality were found. Co-twin analyses suggested that alcohol consumption may be associated with prostate cancer risk independent of early environmental and genetic factors.
Heavy regular alcohol consumption and binge drinking patterns may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk, while abstinence may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to light alcohol consumption.
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Mortality and morbidity from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was studied in 5404 Finnish males aged 35-64 years who had been hospitalised for alcohol-related disease in 1972 without any admissions for IHD during that same period. By record-linkage, morbidity and mortality were followed up to the end of 1975. The mortality of patients with alcohol-related diseases was compared to 1120 patients with acute appendicitis by calculating indirectly age-standardised mortality ratios (SMR). The mortality and morbidity of 5963 patients with acute myocardial infarction or angina pectoris was also studied. The following SMRs for IHD mortality, non-fatal-IHD-hospitalisation and for mortality from all causes respectively, were found: acute myocardial infarction 11.6, 7.2 and 7.2; alcohol intoxication 6.0, 4.5 and 4.5; angina pectoris 5.2, 10.5 and 3.4; liver cirrhosis 2.2, 2.5 and 11.8; alcoholism 1.9, 1.9 and 3.6; pancreatitis 1.8, 1.2 and 4.4; alcohol psychosis 1.7, 2.5 and 4.2. IHD mortality and morbidity appeared to be more prevalent in patients hospitalised with alcohol intoxication than in patients with other alcohol-related diseases. This suggests that rapid drinking predisposes both to serious intoxication and to fatal disturbances of cardiac rhythm.
The genetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are obscure. Although most cases are sporadic half the patients with sporadic AD have a positive family history. The mode of genetic transmission and the role of environmental factors are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of genetic factors to the pathogenesis of AD in a twin cohort.
The Finnish Twin Cohort consists of all Finnish same-sexed twin pairs born before 1958 with both co-twins alive in 1975. The total number of twin pairs is 13 888, of whom 4307 are monozygotic (MZ) and 9581 ar dizygotic (DZ). These data were linked with the Hospital Discharge Register from 1972 to 1991 to identify twins who had dementia or related disease as a discharge diagnosis. The linkage of the registries yielded a total of 285 twin individuals. The medical records of these twins and their co-twins were reviewed to confirm and classify dementia (AD, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and other dementia). The incidence, concordance, and age at onset of AD were examined.
The incidence of AD was significantly higher in MZ than in DZ twin individuals, with and adjusted MZ/DZ incidence ratio of 1.8 (95% confidence intervals 1.2 to 2.7). In contrast, the incidence of vascular or mixed dementia did not differ between MZ and DZ individuals (MZ/DZ ratio 0.6 [0.3 to 1.2]) for vascular and 1.0 [0.5 to 2.1] for mixed dementia). The pairwise concordance for AD was 18.6% in MZ pairs and 4.7% in DZ pairs and the corresponding probandwise concordance rates were 31.3% and 9.3%. The pairwise concordance for vascular dementia was 18.2% in MZ pairs and 6.7% in DZ pairs with corresponding probandwise rates of 30.8% and 12.5%. The onset age of AD concordant MZ pairs was identical in two pairs and diverged by up to 15 years.
The higher incidence of AD in MZ individuals than in DZ individuals may provide a clue to the aetiology of AD. The higher concordance rate of MZ pairs confirms the contribution of the major genetic component while indicating the need to identify environmental triggers.
A large number of studies have shown that obesity is both under genetic control and influenced by several environmental factors, including energy expenditure and intake. Several studies in animals and humans have furthermore suggested that certain environmental factors, such as a high fat intake, may modify the expression of the genes responsible for weight gain. The present study examined whether physical activity, measured at the baseline examination in 1975, was likely to play a differential role in subsequent weight changes in the following 6 y in 1571 monozygotic and 3029 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study. A hierarchical multiple-regression analysis was used to test for gene-environment interactions by identifying significant three-way interactions between genetic factors, physical activity, and weight change. The results showed that associations between weight change in twin A and twin B were significantly stronger for monozygotic than for same-sex dizygotic twins at all levels of physical activity. Additionally, in the monozygotic men the strength of the association varied with physical activity level, and the association between the change in body mass index between the twin pairs with the highest physical activity level was about three times stronger (beta = 0.40) than the association in twin pairs with the lowest physical activity level (beta = 0.15, P for trend = 0.002). In pairs of dizygotic men, and in both monozygotic and dizygotic women, similarity in body mass index change was independent of physical activity level (all P > 0.14). The present study showed that genetic factors may modify the effects of physical activity on weight change, and suggests that a sedentary lifestyle may have an obesity-promoting effect in men with a genetic predisposition.