Hydrothermal pretreatment improves bioconversion of lignocellulose, but the effects of different acid catalysts are poorly understood. The effects of sulfuric acid (SA) and sulfur dioxide (SD) in continuous steam pretreatment of wood of Norway spruce were compared in the temperature range 195°C-215°C. The inhibitory effects of the pretreatment liquid on cellulolytic enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were higher for SD- than for SA-pretreated material, and the inhibitory effects increased with increasing pretreatment temperature. However, the susceptibility to cellulolytic enzymes of wood pretreated with SD was 2.0-2.9 times higher than that of wood pretreated with SA at the same temperature. Data conclusively show that the superior convertibility of SD-pretreated material was not due to inhibition phenomena but rather to the greater capability of the SD pretreatment to reduce the particle size through partial delignification and cellulose degradation. Particle size was shown to be correlated with enzymatic digestibility (R2 0.97-0.98).
This brief report aims to give an overview of the history and current status of clinical genetics services in Iceland and specific genetic counseling considerations for Iceland's population. Presently, there are two part time medical geneticists and one full time genetic counselor with an MSc education from Cardiff, within the Department of Genetic and Molecular Medicine, based in Iceland's only tertiary healthcare facility, Landspitali, the National University Hospital. An oncologist (20 %) also contributes to the cancer genetic counseling service. In addition, a pediatric medical geneticist has a 25 % appointment at the Children's Hospital. No other health care organization offers genetic counseling, and there are no private genetic counseling services.
Research suggests a positive association between coeliac disease and tuberculosis (TB), but that research has often been limited to in-patients and small sample size. We examined the relationship between TB and coeliac disease.
To examine the association of TB and coeliac disease.
We collected biopsy data from all pathology departments in Sweden (n=28) to identify individuals who were diagnosed with coeliac disease between 1969 and 2007 (Marsh 3: villous atrophy; n=29,026 unique individuals). Population-based sex- and age-matched controls were selected from the Total Population Register. Using Cox regression, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for TB from data in the Swedish national health registers.
Individuals with coeliac disease were at increased risk of TB (HR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3-3.0) (during follow-up, 31 individuals with coeliac disease and 74 reference individuals had a diagnosis of TB). The absolute risk of TB in patients with coeliac disease was 10/100,000 person-years with an excess risk of 5/100,000. Risk estimates were the highest in the first year. Restricting our outcome to a diagnosis of TB confirmed by (I) a record of TB medication (HR=2.9; 95% CI=1.0-8.3), (II) data in the National Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases in Sweden (HR=2.6; 95% CI=1.3-5.2) or (III) positive TB cultivation (HR=3.3; 95% CI=1.6-6.8) increased risk estimates. The positive association between coeliac disease and TB was also observed before the coeliac disease diagnosis (odds ratio=1.6; 95% CI=1.2-2.1).
We found a moderately increased risk of tuberculosis in patients with coeliac disease.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency and overload in the adult population in Iceland, a developed Scandinavian country. The study population consisted of 4240 individuals aged 25-74 years randomly selected from the national roster. Basic hematological, S-iron, S-total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and S-ferritin measurements were obtained on 2588 individuals (61.0%). The results indicated unusually large iron stores in the adult Icelandic population and significantly larger iron stores in the rural compared to the urban population. Iron deficiency was rare except in urban premenopausal women, where 1 in 4 showed evidence of iron deficiency and 3.2% had iron deficiency anemia. Seven patients with hereditary hemochromatosis were identified from a subgroup of 1887 subjects, resulting in a prevalence of 0.37%. Two of the hereditary hemochromatosis patients had been gastrectomized. Measures to improve the iron balance in urban premenopausal women cannot therefore include increased iron fortification of food but must be more directed towards the target group.
Trends and differences in tuberculosis incidences and clustering among natives in Denmark, Sweden and Finland: comparison of native incidences and molecular epidemiology among three low-incidence countries.
To compare the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark, Sweden and Finland, by focusing on the native population in order to identify epidemiologic differences and thus indirectly possible differences in TB control.
TB incidence trends from 1990 through 2015 were compared among the countries. In addition, for the periods 2012-2013 and 2014-2015, genotyping data were compared. Genotyping was performed using the 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) method in Denmark and Sweden. For Finland, spoligotyping in conjunction with the 15-locus MIRU-VNTR method was used for 2012-2013 and translated into the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR when feasible, and for 2014-2015 only MIRU-VNTR was used. Both incidence trends and molecular epidemiology were assessed for native cases.
The average annual rate of change in TB incidence for native Danes was -2.4% vs. -6.1% and -6.9% for native Swedes and Finns respectively. In 2012-2013 Denmark had 52 native cases in the largest transmission chain vs. three cases in Sweden and ten in Finland, and during the same period the clustering rate for native Danes was 48.8% vs. 6.5% and 18.2% for native Swedes and Finns respectively. For 2014-2015, a similar pattern was seen.
The decline of TB among natives in Denmark is slower than for Sweden and Finland, and it seems Denmark has more active transmission among natives. The focused assessment on basic native TB epidemiology reveals striking differences in TB transmission among otherwise similar low-TB-incidence countries.
Even though shigellosis in Spain is rare, an indigenous outbreak is occasionally detected. We describe an outbreak in a school in Madrid caused by person-to-person transmission of Shigella sonnei. After the detection of Shigella sonnei in a stool sample from a 3 year old girl, an investigation at her school was initiated. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of 520 pupils attending the school. A case was defined as a school case if it was the first case in a child's household, and as a household case if other members of the household had fallen ill first. We identified 88 cases (60 pupils and 28 of their family members). The attack rate (AR) was 12% in the school and 32% in the families. There was a significant association between higher AR and lower age. The outbreak lasted for two months. The length and the shape of the epidemic curve of the 60 cases in pupils suggests person-to-person transmission. Shigella sonnei isolated from 5 different cases were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and was found to be an identical strain. The prolonged duration of the outbreak was probably due to delayed detection, and stopped as soon as control measures were introduced.
The northern circumpolar jurisdictions Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk), Sweden and the United States (Alaska).
To describe and compare demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics, including drug resistance and treatment completion, of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the northern circumpolar populations.
Descriptive analysis of all active TB cases reported from 2006 to 2012 for incidence rate (IR), age and sex distribution, sputum smear and diagnostic site characteristics, drug resistance and treatment completion rates.
The annual IR of TB disease ranged from a low of 4.3 per 100?000 population in Northern Sweden to a high of 199.5/100?000 in Nunavik, QC, Canada. For all jurisdictions, IR was higher for males than for females. Yukon had the highest proportion of new cases compared with retreatment cases (96.6%). Alaska reported the highest percentage of laboratory-confirmed cases (87.4%). Smear-positive pulmonary cases ranged from 25.8% to 65.2%. Multidrug-resistant cases ranged from 0% (Northern Canada) to 46.3% (Arkhangelsk). Treatment outcome data, available up to 2011, demonstrated >80% treatment completion for four of the 10 jurisdictions.
TB remains a serious public health issue in the circumpolar regions. Surveillance data contribute toward a better understanding and improved control of TB in the north.