Radiation induced breast cancer is a highly complex phenomenon, which most likely involves the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic events. Studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients who underwent multiple fluoroscopic examinations during treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis, those who received therapeutic radiation for benign breast disease, such as acute post-partum mastitis, or those with an enlarged thymus or skin haemangioma and patients with Hodgkin's disease treated by mantle radiotherapy established that the risk of breast cancer increases with exposure to ionising radiation. The carcinogenic effect of therapeutic or accidental radiation is highest when exposure occurs during childhood and exposure after age 40 imparts low or minimal risk. The risk of bilateral breast cancer is not significantly increased in the survivors of atomic bomb and therapeutic radiations. Fractionated exposures for therapeutic radiation are similar to a single exposure of the same total dose in their ability to induce breast cancer; this risk remains high for many years after exposure. Younger age at first full term pregnancy confers a protective effect against the risk of breast cancer in the survivors of atomic bomb but long-term data on this beneficial effect after therapeutic radiation is not available.
The concurrent use of microscopic, cultural, histopathologic and immunologic procedures enabled us to diagnose 91 cases of cryptococcosis, belonging to cutaneous, pulmonary, meningeal and disseminated types, from the time this mycosis was first reported in Canada in 1953 to the present. These cases occurred predominantly in Quebec (43%) followed by Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Newfoundland. It is not known whether any Cryptococcus neoformans infections have occurred elsewhere in Canada. The clinical and laboratory findings indicate that infections occurred in debilitated as well as nondebilitated individuals. Nearly 25% of the infections were seen in individuals having the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. In some of the AIDS cases, the latex agglutination (LA) test demonstrated exceptionally high titres of circulating cryptococcal antigen (1:256 to 1:32,768). Cr. neoformans infections occurred more commonly in males than in females, and there were 11 fatal cases of cryptococcosis. The incidence of Cr. neoformans in Canada is probably higher than our data suggest because cryptococcosis is not notifiable in Canada and underreporting is likely.
The incidence of diphtheria has declined in North America during the last fifty years until it is now an uncommon disease. This general pattern is similar to that seen in other developed countries with well-organized immunization programmes, but certain noteworthy characteristics have been observed in recent years: foci of infection lingered in two population groups of low socio-economic status, in both of which the skin has been an important reservoir. In central areas of certain cities, endemic diphtheria, chiefly cutaneous, has occurred amongst indigent adult males living in unhygienic conditions; and in the native Indian population of Northern Canada diphtheria infection has been endemic in infants and children, many of the infections being of the skin or ear and toxic disease being uncommon. During the last few years, diphtheria outbreaks have not been reported in urban areas and possibly endemicity is now restricted to northern native populations. The number of infections detected in these northern endemic areas is steadily decreasing.
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1977 Jul-Aug;92(4):336-42877208
The capsular type of 160 strains of pneumococci isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid of patients in Alberta and Ontario between June 1978 and August 1980 was determined. Of the 83 known serotypes 36 were represented, and the type distribution was similar to that reported from the United Kingdom and the United States. Although only 111 (69.3%) of the strains belonged to the serotypes represented in the licensed pneumococcal vaccine, if related types within the same serogroup are also included 132 (82.5%) of the strains belonged to the types or groups represented in the vaccine, However, because the vaccine is not recommended for persons aged less than 2 years, from whom 30 strains were isolated, and because 28 strains from those 2 years of age and older were of nonvaccine types or groups, one can presume that 58 (36.3%) of the 160 bacteremic and meningitic infections would not have been prevented by prior vaccination, even if the vaccine were completely effective.
Susceptibility to erythromycin was determined for all pneumococci isolated in one laboratory from clinical specimens between 1969 and 1977. All 4724 isolates examined prior to October 1973 were susceptible to erythromycin. From October 1973 to December 1977, 64 (0.71%) of 8995 pneumococcus isolates were resistant to erythromycin. The resistant strains were isolated from 38 patients living in six widely separated communities in Alberta. The erythromycin-resistant strains were of nine capsular types, including six that often cause bacteremic disease and five for which resistance to erythromycin has not been reported hitherto. Certain strains of type 33 and of type 15 were highly resistant, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin being 2000 microgram/mL; these strains were also highly resistant to lincomycin and clindamycin. Resistance in strains of other types was much lower, the MIC of erythromycin being 0.6 to 20 microgram/mL, and all but one of these strains were susceptible to lincomycin and clindamycin. All the erythromycin-resistant pneumococci were suspectible to penicillin.
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1960;23:5-1314418893
Cites: Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1976;89:184-9414433
Cites: Aust N Z J Med. 1977 Jun;7(3):267-7020874
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1977 Nov 19;117(10):1159-6123894
Cites: Med J Aust. 1974 Sep 7;2(10):353-64153882
Cites: Lancet. 1969 May 17;1(7603):998-10004181183
Cites: J Bacteriol. 1966 Nov;92(5):1281-44380800
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1967 Apr 13;276(15):8524381364
The first Canadian case of coccidioidomycosis in a human was reported in 1952 and 11 more cases since then. This study provides details of other cases of coccidioidomycosis that have been diagnosed in Canada. Based on clinical details, isolation of Coccidioides immitis, detection of a specific antibody (F band) for coccidioidomycosis by macro- or microimmunodiffusion tests, concurrently used with the complement fixation procedure, and histopathological findings, 116 more cases of this disease were verified. The great majority (94%) of these cases were diagnosed in the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and the others in Quebec, Ontario and Nova Scotia (5, 1, and 1 cases, respectively). Available information indicates that the C. immitis infections were contracted during visits to endemic areas in the United States (Arizona, California and New Mexico), Mexico, and Bolivia. Pulmonary infections were the most common type of coccidioidomycosis (93%) followed by the disseminated or meningeal types C. immitis infections occurred in individuals with or without predisposing factor(s) and were more common in males than in females. The exoantigen procedure was very useful and reliable in the accurate and rapid identification of suspected C. immitis isolates. Two cases of coccidioidomycosis were reported in animals in Ontario, Canada.