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Breast cancer risk among the survivors of atomic bomb and patients exposed to therapeutic ionising radiation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18384
Source
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2003 Jun;29(5):475-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
A. Carmichael
A S Sami
J M Dixon
Author Affiliation
The Princess Royal Hospital, Hayward Heath, West Sussex, UK. homepac@doctors.org.uk
Source
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2003 Jun;29(5):475-9
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Breast Diseases - radiotherapy
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Female
Fluoroscopy - adverse effects
Hemangioma - radiotherapy
Hodgkin Disease - radiotherapy
Humans
Incidence
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Nuclear Warfare
Radiation, Ionizing
Radiotherapy - adverse effects
Risk factors
Survivors
Abstract
Radiation induced breast cancer is a highly complex phenomenon, which most likely involves the accumulation of several genetic and epigenetic events. Studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients who underwent multiple fluoroscopic examinations during treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis, those who received therapeutic radiation for benign breast disease, such as acute post-partum mastitis, or those with an enlarged thymus or skin haemangioma and patients with Hodgkin's disease treated by mantle radiotherapy established that the risk of breast cancer increases with exposure to ionising radiation. The carcinogenic effect of therapeutic or accidental radiation is highest when exposure occurs during childhood and exposure after age 40 imparts low or minimal risk. The risk of bilateral breast cancer is not significantly increased in the survivors of atomic bomb and therapeutic radiations. Fractionated exposures for therapeutic radiation are similar to a single exposure of the same total dose in their ability to induce breast cancer; this risk remains high for many years after exposure. Younger age at first full term pregnancy confers a protective effect against the risk of breast cancer in the survivors of atomic bomb but long-term data on this beneficial effect after therapeutic radiation is not available.
PubMed ID
12798754 View in PubMed
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Current status of cryptococcosis in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103187
Source
Mycoses. 1990 Feb;33(2):73-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1990
Author
A S Sekhon
S N Bannerjee
B M Mielke
H. Idikio
G. Wood
J M Dixon
Author Affiliation
National Reference Centre for Human Mycotic Diseases, Provincial Laboratory of Public Health, Edmonton, Canada.
Source
Mycoses. 1990 Feb;33(2):73-80
Date
Feb-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - complications
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cryptococcosis - complications - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Factors
Abstract
The concurrent use of microscopic, cultural, histopathologic and immunologic procedures enabled us to diagnose 91 cases of cryptococcosis, belonging to cutaneous, pulmonary, meningeal and disseminated types, from the time this mycosis was first reported in Canada in 1953 to the present. These cases occurred predominantly in Quebec (43%) followed by Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Newfoundland. It is not known whether any Cryptococcus neoformans infections have occurred elsewhere in Canada. The clinical and laboratory findings indicate that infections occurred in debilitated as well as nondebilitated individuals. Nearly 25% of the infections were seen in individuals having the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. In some of the AIDS cases, the latex agglutination (LA) test demonstrated exceptionally high titres of circulating cryptococcal antigen (1:256 to 1:32,768). Cr. neoformans infections occurred more commonly in males than in females, and there were 11 fatal cases of cryptococcosis. The incidence of Cr. neoformans in Canada is probably higher than our data suggest because cryptococcosis is not notifiable in Canada and underreporting is likely.
PubMed ID
2352543 View in PubMed
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Diphtheria bacilli isolated in Alberta in 1967 from the throat, nose, ears and skin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature109940
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1969 Aug 23;101(4):204-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-23-1969
Source
J Hyg (Lond). 1984 Dec;93(3):419-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1984
Author
J M Dixon
Source
J Hyg (Lond). 1984 Dec;93(3):419-32
Date
Dec-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacteriophages - pathogenicity
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Corynebacterium diphtheriae - pathogenicity
Diphtheria - epidemiology - history - mortality
Drug Resistance, Microbial
History, 20th Century
Humans
Otitis - epidemiology - microbiology
Pharyngeal Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Skin Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
United States
Abstract
The incidence of diphtheria has declined in North America during the last fifty years until it is now an uncommon disease. This general pattern is similar to that seen in other developed countries with well-organized immunization programmes, but certain noteworthy characteristics have been observed in recent years: foci of infection lingered in two population groups of low socio-economic status, in both of which the skin has been an important reservoir. In central areas of certain cities, endemic diphtheria, chiefly cutaneous, has occurred amongst indigent adult males living in unhygienic conditions; and in the native Indian population of Northern Canada diphtheria infection has been endemic in infants and children, many of the infections being of the skin or ear and toxic disease being uncommon. During the last few years, diphtheria outbreaks have not been reported in urban areas and possibly endemicity is now restricted to northern native populations. The number of infections detected in these northern endemic areas is steadily decreasing.
Notes
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1977 Jul-Aug;92(4):336-42877208
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Cites: Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol. 1964 Dec;23(4):817-384953724
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Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1969 Aug 23;101(4):204-74980469
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1970 Mar;91(3):294-94984303
Cites: JAMA. 1970 Mar 30;211(13):2125-94984784
Cites: Arch Roum Pathol Exp Microbiol. 1969 Dec;28(4):1053-94991998
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1972 Aug;126(2):196-94626545
Cites: J Hyg (Lond). 1972 Sep;70(3):503-104627266
Cites: Lancet. 1973 Jan 20;1(7795):1564118506
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1973 Feb 3;108(3):329-314632361
Cites: JAMA. 1973 Apr 16;224(3):305-104632443
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1974 Feb;129(2):172-84204238
Cites: JAMA. 1974 Sep 30;229(14):1890-34213033
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1975 Mar;131(3):239-44805182
Cites: South Med J. 1976 Jun;69(6):759-61, 763935909
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1977 Jun 4;116(11):1279-83861886
PubMed ID
6439781 View in PubMed
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Letter: Pneumococcus with increased resistance to penicillin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature253247
Source
Lancet. 1974 Aug 24;2(7878):474
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-24-1974

Pneumococcal serotypes causing bacteremia and meningitis: relevance to composition of pneumococcal vaccine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature244298
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Aug 1;125(3):263-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-1981
Author
J M Dixon
A E Lipinski
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1981 Aug 1;125(3):263-7
Date
Aug-1-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alberta
Bacterial Vaccines - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Meningitis, Pneumococcal - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Ontario
Sepsis - prevention & control
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - classification - immunology - isolation & purification
Abstract
The capsular type of 160 strains of pneumococci isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid of patients in Alberta and Ontario between June 1978 and August 1980 was determined. Of the 83 known serotypes 36 were represented, and the type distribution was similar to that reported from the United Kingdom and the United States. Although only 111 (69.3%) of the strains belonged to the serotypes represented in the licensed pneumococcal vaccine, if related types within the same serogroup are also included 132 (82.5%) of the strains belonged to the types or groups represented in the vaccine, However, because the vaccine is not recommended for persons aged less than 2 years, from whom 30 strains were isolated, and because 28 strains from those 2 years of age and older were of nonvaccine types or groups, one can presume that 58 (36.3%) of the 160 bacteremic and meningitic infections would not have been prevented by prior vaccination, even if the vaccine were completely effective.
Notes
Cites: Chemotherapy. 1970;15(5):304-164395554
Cites: Arch Intern Med. 1974 Sep;134(3):505-104152800
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1977 Feb;5(2):154-6614971
Cites: Johns Hopkins Med J. 1977 Sep;141(3):104-11894852
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1977 Nov 19;117(10):1159-6123894
Cites: J Hyg (Lond). 1978 Oct;81(2):227-3829927
Cites: Infect Immun. 1978 Dec;22(3):727-3583302
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1978 Nov 4;119(9):1044-633761
Cites: Pediatrics. 1979 Sep;64(3):296-30039285
Cites: Infect Immun. 1979 Dec;26(3):1116-2243290
Cites: Lancet. 1980 Feb 16;1(8164):3606101804
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1979 Dec;140(6):979-8344310
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1980 Jan;141(1):119-236245143
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Mar;11(3):242-47380999
Cites: Lancet. 1980 Jun 21;1(8182):13546104141
Cites: Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Sep;18(3):390-66903437
PubMed ID
7272879 View in PubMed
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Pneumococci resistant to erythromycin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature248082
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1978 Nov 4;119(9):1044-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-4-1978
Author
J M Dixon
A E Lipinski
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1978 Nov 4;119(9):1044-6
Date
Nov-4-1978
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alberta
Child
Child, Preschool
Clindamycin - therapeutic use
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Erythromycin - therapeutic use
Humans
Infant
Lincomycin - therapeutic use
Pneumococcal Infections - drug therapy - microbiology
Sepsis - drug therapy - microbiology
Streptococcus pneumoniae - drug effects - isolation & purification
Abstract
Susceptibility to erythromycin was determined for all pneumococci isolated in one laboratory from clinical specimens between 1969 and 1977. All 4724 isolates examined prior to October 1973 were susceptible to erythromycin. From October 1973 to December 1977, 64 (0.71%) of 8995 pneumococcus isolates were resistant to erythromycin. The resistant strains were isolated from 38 patients living in six widely separated communities in Alberta. The erythromycin-resistant strains were of nine capsular types, including six that often cause bacteremic disease and five for which resistance to erythromycin has not been reported hitherto. Certain strains of type 33 and of type 15 were highly resistant, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin being 2000 microgram/mL; these strains were also highly resistant to lincomycin and clindamycin. Resistance in strains of other types was much lower, the MIC of erythromycin being 0.6 to 20 microgram/mL, and all but one of these strains were susceptible to lincomycin and clindamycin. All the erythromycin-resistant pneumococci were suspectible to penicillin.
Notes
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1960;23:5-1314418893
Cites: Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1976;89:184-9414433
Cites: Aust N Z J Med. 1977 Jun;7(3):267-7020874
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1977 Nov 19;117(10):1159-6123894
Cites: Med J Aust. 1974 Sep 7;2(10):353-64153882
Cites: Lancet. 1969 May 17;1(7603):998-10004181183
Cites: J Bacteriol. 1966 Nov;92(5):1281-44380800
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1967 Apr 13;276(15):8524381364
Cites: Med J Aust. 1968 Jun 29;1(26):11314385911
Cites: Chemotherapy. 1970;15(5):304-164395554
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1974 Oct;130(4):351-64613758
Cites: Am J Med. 1970 Jan;48(1):132-65415405
Cites: Lancet. 1977 Nov 12;2(8046):995-772950
PubMed ID
33761 View in PubMed
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Review of human and animal cases of coccidioidomycosis diagnosed in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227111
Source
Mycopathologia. 1991 Jan;113(1):1-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1991
Author
A S Sekhon
J. Isaac-Renton
J M Dixon
L. Stein
H V Sims
Author Affiliation
National Reference Centre for Human Mycotic Diseases, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Source
Mycopathologia. 1991 Jan;113(1):1-10
Date
Jan-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Coccidioidomycosis - epidemiology - veterinary
Dog Diseases - epidemiology
Dogs
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Papio
Abstract
The first Canadian case of coccidioidomycosis in a human was reported in 1952 and 11 more cases since then. This study provides details of other cases of coccidioidomycosis that have been diagnosed in Canada. Based on clinical details, isolation of Coccidioides immitis, detection of a specific antibody (F band) for coccidioidomycosis by macro- or microimmunodiffusion tests, concurrently used with the complement fixation procedure, and histopathological findings, 116 more cases of this disease were verified. The great majority (94%) of these cases were diagnosed in the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and the others in Quebec, Ontario and Nova Scotia (5, 1, and 1 cases, respectively). Available information indicates that the C. immitis infections were contracted during visits to endemic areas in the United States (Arizona, California and New Mexico), Mexico, and Bolivia. Pulmonary infections were the most common type of coccidioidomycosis (93%) followed by the disseminated or meningeal types C. immitis infections occurred in individuals with or without predisposing factor(s) and were more common in males than in females. The exoantigen procedure was very useful and reliable in the accurate and rapid identification of suspected C. immitis isolates. Two cases of coccidioidomycosis were reported in animals in Ontario, Canada.
PubMed ID
2014046 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.