BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the TFA group and triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. HRV, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the association between coronary heart disease risk and intake of TFA and n-3 PUFA relates only modestly to changes in traditional risk markers. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council (Grant no. 22-01-0390), Center of Advanced Food Research (Copenhagen, Denmark) (Grant no. KVL-R-2001-107), the Danish Heart Association (Grant no. 99-2-3-45-22748), Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark), Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark), and from private sources. The experimental fats were provided by Pronova Biocare (Aalesund, Norway) and Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark).
In order to evaluate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on systolic left ventricular function, we investigated the effect of daily supplementation with 5.2 g n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks in 55 patients with a recent myocardial infarction in a double blind placebo-controlled design. Left ventricular function was assessed by transthoracal echo-cardiography and plasma concentration of proANP and N-terminal proANP. No effect of n-3 PUFA could be demonstrated on these indices of left ventricular function.
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death after renal transplantation. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert potential cardio-protective metabolic effects and might reduce CV morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs).
In this cross-sectional study of 1990 Norwegian RTRs, transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between plasma phospholipid marine n-3 PUFA levels and various CV risk markers at 10 weeks after transplant were evaluated.
Higher plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower resting heart rate (rHR), lower fasting plasma glucose (fPG) levels, lower plasma triglyceride levels and higher plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, but not docosahexaenoic acid, showed a positive association with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels were not associated with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, pulse wave velocity or systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A negative association between plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels and CV mortality was weakened by additional adjustment for plasma triglyceride levels and rHR. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs showed similar associations with CV risk markers as absolute plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels.
This is the first study in RTRs showing that marine n-3 PUFAs are negatively associated with rHR and fPG in addition to beneficial effects on plasma HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Especially, effects on autonomic nervous function and triglyceride metabolism might contribute to explain the lower CV mortality risk with higher plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels previously shown in this cohort.
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