The evidence regarding fatty acids and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. Adipose tissue fatty acids can be used as biomarkers of fatty acid intake and of endogenous fatty acid exposure. Fatty acids in adipose tissue are correlated owing to common dietary sources and shared metabolic pathways, which group fatty acids into naturally occurring patterns. We aimed to prospectively investigate associations between adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and long-term risk of total breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes characterised by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status (ER and PR).
This case-cohort study was based on data from the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health. At baseline, a fat biopsy and information on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected. From the 31 original fatty acids measured, patterns of fatty acids were identified using the treelet transform. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 474 breast cancer cases were identified. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of risk of total breast cancer and of subtypes according to quintiles of factor score were determined by weighted Cox proportional hazards regression.
After adjustment for potential confounders, factor scores for the seven patterns identified by the treelet transform were not associated with risk of total breast cancer, nor with risk of ER+, ER-, PR+ or PR- tumours.
No clear associations between the patterns of fatty acids at baseline and long-term risk of total breast cancer or ER+, ER-, PR+ or PR- tumours were observed.
BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the TFA group and triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. HRV, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the association between coronary heart disease risk and intake of TFA and n-3 PUFA relates only modestly to changes in traditional risk markers. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council (Grant no. 22-01-0390), Center of Advanced Food Research (Copenhagen, Denmark) (Grant no. KVL-R-2001-107), the Danish Heart Association (Grant no. 99-2-3-45-22748), Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark), Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark), and from private sources. The experimental fats were provided by Pronova Biocare (Aalesund, Norway) and Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark).
OBJECTIVES: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from fish may reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of the present study was to examine associations between n-3 PUFA and 24-h heart rate variability in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: The out-patient's diabetic clinic at Hjørring Hospital, Hjørring, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Forty-three patients with type 1 DM and 38 patients with type 2 DM. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The patients fulfilled a food-questionnaire regarding fish consumption, whilst the content of n-3 PUFA in platelets was measured and 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained. RESULTS: The patients fish consumption was strongly related to their content of n-3 PUFA in platelets. Furthermore, in patients with type 1 DM a close positive association was found between the content of n-3 PUFA in platelets and 24-h HRV. This association was not significant in patients with type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between n-3 PUFA in platelets and HRV may indicate a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA on HRV in patients with type 1 DM. Further studies are warranted to clarify whether supplementation with n-3 PUFA reduce the risk of SCD amongst patients with DM.
A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3), solid-phase extraction (silica gel), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The sum concentration of 25 PAHs ([summation operator]PAH(25)) was highest in smoked herring (n = 3) and mackerel fillets (n = 13), with an average concentration of 320 and 235 microg kg(-1), respectively. Lowest average [summation operator]PAH(25) concentrations were obtained for indirectly smoked trout (26 microg kg(-1)). Principal component analysis was used to correlate processing parameters to PAH concentrations and to identify the effects of these parameters. The analysis showed that for salmon hot-smoking conditions lead to higher SigmaPAH(25) than cold smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher SigmaPAH(25) than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the [summation operator]PAH(25) were also tested in a pilot plant study with smoked trout as a model fish. In addition to confirming that increased combustion temperatures and usage of common alder in comparison with beech increased [summation operator]PAH(25), it was also revealed that the PAH concentration decreased in the order fish skin > outer layer of the fish muscle > inner part of the fish muscle.
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only means of diagnosing atrial infarction antemortem. Certain ECG changes (PR-segment displacements) have been taken earlier as signs of atrial infarction. The purpose of this study was to assess the interobserver variation on suggested ECG signs of atrial infarction in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction. The ECGs from 290 patients were evaluated by three physicians with respect to the occurrence of each of the following seven criteria suggestive of atrial infarction: (1) PR-segment elevation > 0.5 mm in lead I; (2) PR-segment depressions > 0.5 mm in leads II and III; (3) PR-segment depressions > 1.2 mm in leads I, II, and III; (4) PR-segment depressions > 0.5 mm in leads V1 and V2; (5) PR-segment elevations > 0.5 mm in leads V5 and V6; (6) PR-segment depressions > 1.5 mm in precordial leads; and (7) abnormal P waves. Kappa values ranged from 0.00-0.86. Of the seven criteria tested only criteria 2, 4, and 7 could be detected in a reasonable number of patients. The interobserver variations of these criteria were considerable, although the strength of agreement could be designated as fair to moderate.
In order to evaluate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on systolic left ventricular function, we investigated the effect of daily supplementation with 5.2 g n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks in 55 patients with a recent myocardial infarction in a double blind placebo-controlled design. Left ventricular function was assessed by transthoracal echo-cardiography and plasma concentration of proANP and N-terminal proANP. No effect of n-3 PUFA could be demonstrated on these indices of left ventricular function.
OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish in the prevention and, primarily, in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN: Overview of the literature. SETTING: Denmark. RESULTS: There is good evidence that fish consumption may reduce the risk of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Fish can be recommended to reduce the risk of CAD both in healthy subjects and in patients with a high risk of CAD or with documented CAD. The use of fish oil concentrates can not be recommended in general, but may be considered in patients after a myocardial infarction or in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. An increased intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish may have substantial implications for public health and health economy by decreasing the risk of coronary events and sudden cardiac death.
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death after renal transplantation. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert potential cardio-protective metabolic effects and might reduce CV morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTRs).
In this cross-sectional study of 1990 Norwegian RTRs, transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between plasma phospholipid marine n-3 PUFA levels and various CV risk markers at 10 weeks after transplant were evaluated.
Higher plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower resting heart rate (rHR), lower fasting plasma glucose (fPG) levels, lower plasma triglyceride levels and higher plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, but not docosahexaenoic acid, showed a positive association with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels were not associated with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, pulse wave velocity or systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A negative association between plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels and CV mortality was weakened by additional adjustment for plasma triglyceride levels and rHR. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs showed similar associations with CV risk markers as absolute plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels.
This is the first study in RTRs showing that marine n-3 PUFAs are negatively associated with rHR and fPG in addition to beneficial effects on plasma HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Especially, effects on autonomic nervous function and triglyceride metabolism might contribute to explain the lower CV mortality risk with higher plasma marine n-3 PUFA levels previously shown in this cohort.
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In order to assess the impact of thrombolytic therapy on return to work 18 months after a first myocardial infarction 32 patients treated with streptokinase were compared to 30 patients not treated with streptokinase. The study was designed as a historical cohort study. The patients in both groups had continuous chest pain of less than six hours prior to admission and electrocardiographic changes consistent with acute myocardial infarction. The two groups were comparable with respect to medical variables related to their myocardial infarction and to educational level. A total of 17 patients (53%) in the streptokinase group and 16 (53%) among controls had stopped working 18 months after their MI. An association between the treatment and the working status could not be found (relative risk = 1.0) nor could it be found if the figures were corrected for deaths and retirements because of age. In conclusion, this study could not demonstrate any beneficial effect of thrombolytic therapy on the return to work 18 months after an initial myocardial infarction.