Health care post-birth may include referrals for additional care. Migrant (i.e., refugee, asylum-seeker, and immigrant) women frequently do not follow-up referrals for care and could be at increased health risk as a consequence. We sought to explore the inhibitors and facilitators of migrant women for following through with referrals for care.
Twenty-five women living in Montreal who had received a referral completed semi-structured interviews.
Inhibitors included language barriers, transportation problems, scheduling appointments, absence of husband, absence of childcare, cold weather, perceived inappropriate referrals, and cultural practice differences. Facilitators included choice of follow-up facilitator, appropriate services, empathetic professionals, and early receipt of information.
Results indicate that migrant women may not be receiving the care they and their newborns need once a concern is identified. This suggests conceiving of a different approach to the care of this population post-birth, which could include partnering with social or religious networks.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether attitudes and other variables would be associated with intention to use condoms in sexually-inactive male adolescents.
The survey was conducted from April to June 1989 on a sample of 879 sexually-inactive boys aged 12-19 years registered in secondary schools in Laval, Quebec.
The major findings of the study were that: (1) information on condoms provided by peers was significantly associated with the intention to use condoms; (2) information provided by schools, while not significant in the final model, was positively associated with younger adolescents' intention to use condoms; and (3) sexually-inactive male adolescents in a less committed couple relationship had a greater intention to use condoms.
The results of this study highlight the importance of peer instructors as a source of information on condoms, as well as that of teachers and health professionals from the school environment. Other channels of communication, however, need to be developed particularly for older sexually-inactive adolescents who may be impervious to this latter source. The findings also underline the necessity to make sexually-inactive adolescents in stable couple relationships more aware of their potential vulnerability to STDs and AIDS should they commence sexual relations.
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on the intention to use condoms in sexually active male adolescents.
The survey was conducted from April to June 1989 on a sample of 433 sexually active boys aged 12-19 years registered in secondary schools in Laval, Quebec.
Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, school, or media had no positive effect on male adolescents' intention to use condoms. Having a favorable attitude towards contraceptive responsibility, however, was significantly associated with the outcome variable. Endorsement of this responsibility seemed short-lived being replaced by the birth control pill in older adolescents. The study also found that in younger adolescents, intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes.
The results of this study highlight the importance of developing strategies to encourage sexually active male adolescents to assume greater responsibility for using condoms, and suggest that in order for programs to be effective, STD and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention should be done at younger ages while encouraging parents to take a greater role in sex education.
Minor physical anomalies are considered indicators of disruption in fetal development. They have been found to predict behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders. This study examined the extent to which minor physical anomalies, family adversity, and their interaction predict violent and nonviolent delinquency in adolescence.
Minor physical anomalies were assessed in a group of 170 adolescent boys from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods of Montréal. The boys had been enrolled in a longitudinal study since their kindergarten year, when an assessment of family adversity had been made on the basis of familial status and the parents' occupational prestige, age at the birth of the first child, and educational level. Adolescent delinquency was measured by using self-reported questionnaires and a search of official crime records.
Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that both the total count of minor physical anomalies and the total count of minor physical anomalies of the mouth were significantly associated with an increased risk of violent delinquency in adolescence, beyond the effects of childhood physical aggression and family adversity. Similar findings were not found for nonviolent delinquency.
Children with a higher count of minor physical anomalies, and especially a higher count of anomalies of the mouth, could be more difficult to socialize for different and additive reasons: they may have neurological deficits, and they may have feeding problems in the first months after birth. Longitudinal studies of infants with minor physical anomalies of the mouth are needed to understand the process by which they fail to learn to inhibit physical aggression.
This article reports the results of a questionnaire survey of a representative random sample of all the in-school Francophone adolescents of Montreal. The sample size was 4,539 and included adolescents from legally intact homes, separated/divorced homes, and homes in which a parent was decreased. Health-risk behavioral indicators were smoking (how many cigarettes a day), fastening of car seat belts, and intemperate drinking. Adolescents who lived in intact families engaged less in health-risk behavior than the other adolescents, especially those from separated/divorced families. The results for adolescents from widowed families were mixed. Several mutually complementary explanations are presented.
Some lines of development of research on children's perceptions of vulnerability to a variety of health problems are discussed, with special reference to cross-sectional data from samples of American and French-speaking Canadian youngsters, and longitudinal data from two American samples. Perceived vulnerability demonstrated some developmental changes but these were not consistent or appreciable. The measurement of perceived vulnerability has been expanded to include serious health problems during adult years. Females showed consistently higher levels than males. Perceived vulnerability was negatively related to a variety of preventive health behaviors and to self-concept, and positively related to anxiety. The data suggest that perceived vulnerability has systemic qualities as well as important affective properties, and that these must be considered by health educators and other health professionals to assure greater effectiveness for their programs and interventions.
The present study explored changes in mental health and functional status from pregnancy to 2 months postpartum in a sample of 106 childbearing immigrant women. Three sets of variables were examined in relation to postpartum depressive symptomatology: (1) prenatal depression, worries, and somatic symptoms; (2) social relationships (marital quality and social support), and (3) factors related to migration (premigration stress and length of stay in the host country). We found that 37.7% of the women in this community sample scored above the cutpoint of 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; prenatal depressive and somatic symptoms, as well as marital quality, were the best predictors of postpartum depressive symptomatology. An examination of differing trajectories from pregnancy to the postpartum period suggests that women with relatively few somatic complaints, low levels of perinatal stress, and satisfactory marital relations were less likely to exhibit mental health problems during pregnancy and postpartum. Women who were not depressed prenatally but reported postpartum depressive symptomatology exhibited several predisposing risk factors during pregnancy: many somatic complaints, high perinatal anxiety, and premigration stress. Women who were depressed during pregnancy but not postpartum reported improved physical function after childbirth. The implications of these findings for screening childbearing immigrant women are discussed.