To construct new Danish growth charts for 0- to 20-year-olds and to compare them with Danish references from 1982 and with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for children aged 0-5 years from 2006, by applying similar inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Anthropometric data from three contemporary Danish population-based studies were combined. References for height were based on healthy Caucasian children born at term. A total of 12,671 height measurements (8055 in boys and 4616 in girls) were included. Reference charts were developed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape.
From prepubertal ages, a secular increase in height was observed for both genders. The differences were most pronounced in puberty, and final heights were increased by 1.4 cm in boys and 2.9 cm in girls compared to 1982 references. In boys, but not girls an upward shift in body mass index (BMI) above median levels was found. Reference curves for height were superimposable with standard curves based on the selective WHO criteria. Danish children were longer/taller and heavier and they had larger head circumferences than those reported in the recent multiethnic WHO standards.
We recommend national implementation of these contemporary 2014 Danish references for anthropometric measurements.
Antidepressant (AD) therapy is recommended for patients 4-12 months after remission from depression. The aim was to examine whether immigrants (refugees or family reunited immigrants) from non-Western countries are at greater risk than Danish-born residents of 1) not initiating AD therapy after discharge and 2) early AD discontinuation.
A cohort of immigrants from non-Western countries (n?=?132) and matched Danish-born residents (n?=?396) discharged after first admission with moderate to severe depression between 1 January 1996 and 31 May 2008 was followed in the Danish registries.Logistic regression models were applied to explore AD initiation within 30 days after discharge, estimating odds ratio (OR) for immigrants versus Danish-born residents.Early discontinuation was explored by logistic regression, estimating OR for no AD dispensing within 180 days after the first dispensing, and by Cox regression, estimating hazard ratio (HR) for discontinuation (maximum drug supply gap) within 180 days.
Immigrants had higher odds for not initiating AD treatment after discharge than Danish-born residents (OR?=?1.55; 95% CI: 1.01-2.38). When income was included in the model, the strength of the association was attenuated. Odds for early discontinuation was non-significantly higher among immigrants than Danish-born residents (OR?=?1.80; 0.87-3.73). Immigrants also had a non-significantly higher hazard of early discontinuation (HR?=?1.46; 95% CI: 0.87-2.45). Including income had only minor impact on these associations.
Immigrants seem less likely to receive the recommended AD treatment after hospitalization with depression. This may indicate a need for a better understanding of the circumstances of this vulnerable group.
Cites: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Oct;20(10):1073-921853505
The primary purposes of preventive child health care in Denmark are to help ensure a healthy childhood and to create preconditions for a healthy adult life. The aim of this study is to examine whether participation in age-appropriate preventative child health care affects the association between the socioeconomic position of the family and subsequent use of specialised health care outside the hospital system.
The study population was children born in 1999 and living in Denmark between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2006 (n=68,366). The study investigated whether the number of contacts with a specialist in 2006 was related to participation in preventive child health care between 2002 and 2005. To control for the potential effect of difference in GP behaviour the data were analysed using a multilevel Poisson model linking each child to the GP with whom he or she was listed.
If the children attended any preventive child health care visits, they had the same probability of contact with a specialist regardless of the parents' income. However, children from low-income families not participating in any preventive care had a lower probability of contact with a specialist than children from more affluent families.
Ensuring participation in preventive child health care at the GP may reduce the social gap in utilisation of specialised health care that exists between children from families of different income levels.
In patients with Fabry disease (FD), left ventricular hypertrophy and arrhythmias are frequently observed and cardiac involvement is the leading cause of death. Long-term efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on cardiac involvement is unclear. We assessed and compared long-term progression of cardiac involvement according to ERT and non-ERT.
We retrospectively assessed and compared long-term progression of cardiac involvement in adult patients with FD in the nationwide Danish cohort. We followed clinical signs, symptoms and findings by echocardiography, electrocardiography and Holter-monitoring.
We included 66 patients; 47 patients (27 women) received ERT (ERT group) and 19 patients (15 women) did not (non-ERT group). The groups were followed for a median of 8 [0-12] years and 6 [0-13] years, respectively. Comparison between ERT and non-ERT receiving patients by left ventricular mass (echocardiographic assessment) and Sokolow-Lyon voltage- and Cornell product criteria (electrocardiographic assessment) revealed no significant differences. In the ERT group, we observed no change in left ventricular mass but a decrease in Sokolow-Lyon voltage- and Cornell product criteria from baseline to follow-up; 30?mm [15-53] vs. 25?mm [3-44], p?
Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP).
To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development. To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) in boys with CDGP.
A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development (COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated for delayed puberty between 1990 and 2013.
Tertiary referral center for pediatric endocrinology.
One hundred and sixty-four (36%) boys evaluated for CDGP were excluded due to missing data, reclassification, or associated comorbidities, yielding 287 (64%) eligible for analysis.
The number of patients with CDGP classified by the puberty nomogram (genital stage
The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of reproductive behavior on the social class gradient in breast cancer occurrence in Denmark. Objectives were to study whether the gradient across socioeconomic groups could be explained by fertility differences, whether the gradient across educational groups could be explained by fertility differences and whether the effect of socioeconomic group on breast cancer incidence and mortality could be explained by education and vice versa. We studied 674,084 women aged 20-39 at the census on 9 November 1970 for whom we had complete data on fertility history. The cohort was followed up for breast cancer incidence and mortality until 8 November 1998. Fertility history varied considerably across socioeconomic group, where 38% of the academics were childless at the age of 30, in contrast to only 8% of women in agriculture. The academics had the highest risk of breast cancer and women in agriculture had the lowest risk. For incidence, the gradient in the relative risks was 1.74, which changed to 1.49 when fertility history was incorporated and to 1.29 when school education was also taken into account. For school education, women with > or = 12 years of schooling had the highest risk and women with
Suboptimal healthcare utilisation and lower satisfaction with the patient-doctor encounter among immigrants has been documented. Immigrants' lack of familiarity with the healthcare system has been proposed as an explanation for this. This study investigated whether a systematic delivery of information affected immigrants' knowledge of and satisfaction with the Danish healthcare system.
A prospective, randomised intervention study of 1158 adult immigrants attending two language schools in Copenhagen was conducted. Two intervention groups received written information or a 12-hour course on the Danish healthcare system, while a control group received nothing. Survey data included self-assessed knowledge, true/false questions on access and questions relating to satisfaction with the healthcare system. Data were linked to socioeconomic registry data. Logistic regression analyses were performed.
The course improved knowledge of who to contact in the event of an accident (odds ratio (OR) = 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.56-4.59) but not in the event of illness. Further, it positively affected correct answers for nine out of 11 questions on the healthcare system (varying from OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08-3.24 to OR = 3.11, 95% CI = 1.58-6.11). Written information positively affected correct answers for three out of 11 questions, but negatively affected one out of 11 compared with the control group. Neither intervention affected immigrants' satisfaction with the healthcare system.
Knowledge of the healthcare system is necessary for optimal healthcare-seeking behaviour. The results may form the basis of national and international changes in immigrant reception and optimise immigrants' contact with the healthcare system.
In adult women, the circulating level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a novel marker of ovarian function, as it reflects the number of remaining ovarian follicles. Therefore, AMH has gained widespread attention in fertility clinics, and a low AMH is believed to predict impaired fertility and imminent menopause. However, the natural course of circulating AMH levels during female childhood and adolescence is not known.
Serum levels of AMH and FSH were measured in girls participating in The COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Longitudinal part: 85 healthy girls and adolescents were examined, and blood samples were drawn every 6 months for an average of 3 years: median (range) number of samples per girl was 6 (2-10), age at baseline was 9.2 (5.9-12.9) years. Cross-sectional part: 224 prepubertal girls (age 8.3, 5.6-11.7 years) were examined and each girl had one blood sample drawn.
The individual mean AMH levels in girls followed longitudinally ranged from 5 to 54 pmol/l (median 18 pmol/l). The mean intra-individual coefficient of variation of AMH was 22% (range 0-54%). Overall, each girl maintained her AMH level throughout childhood and adolescence although minor, but significant, changes occurred during pubertal transition. In prepubertal girls, AMH was negatively correlated with FSH (r = -0.31, P
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have reported low sperm concentration in young men recruited from the general population, but it is unknown whether the semen quality of these young men reflects that of more mature men or is reduced due to relative immaturity. We conducted a longitudinal follow-up study to address this question. METHODS: We followed 158 young men (median age = 19.1 years at entry) for up to 4 years and requested quarterly semen samples (total 1838 semen samples) and yearly genital examinations. We examined longitudinal changes in sperm concentration, semen volume, percentage of immotile sperm and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. We used general linear models in which each man served as his own control which also controlled for age, smoking, urogenital infections or disorders, fever and abstinence time. RESULTS: We found no evidence that sperm concentration, total sperm count or percentage of morphologically normal sperm changed appreciably during the 4 years of follow-up. Semen volume appeared to increase slightly with age, perhaps due to greater acceptance of the study protocol by participants. Sperm motility also improved somewhat, although this may, at least in part, reflect a trend in motility measurement. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis of 1838 semen samples from 158 young men from the Copenhagen area, sperm concentration, total sperm count and sperm morphology did not change significantly during 4 years of follow-up, suggesting that previously reported low sperm concentration and poor sperm morphology among young Danish men are unlikely to be the result of immaturity.
Is exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) associated with testicular function (reproductive hormone levels and semen quality) in healthy men?
PFOS levels were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone (total and calculated free), but not with any other reproductive hormones or semen quality.
In animals, some PFCs have endocrine disrupting potential, but few studies have investigated PFCs in relation to human testicular function. Previously, we and others have observed a negative association between serum PFC levels and sperm morphology. The potential associations with reproductive hormones remain largely unresolved.
A cross-sectional study of 247 men was conducted during 2008-2009.
Healthy men from the general population, median age of 19 years, gave serum and semen samples. Serum samples were analysed for total testosterone (T), estradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin-B and 14 PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Semen samples were analysed according to the WHO criteria.
PFOS levels were negatively associated with testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (FT), free androgen index (FAI) and ratios of T/LH, FAI/LH and FT/LH. Other PFCs were found at lower levels than PFOS and did not exhibit the same associations. PFC levels were not significantly associated with semen quality. PFOS levels in these samples collected in 2008-2009 were lower than in our previous study of men participating in 2003.
Results were robust to adjustment for relevant confounders; however, the possibility of chance associations due to multiple testing or effects of uncontrolled confounding cannot be ruled out.
Our previous findings of decreased sperm morphology in the most highly PFC exposed men were not replicated, possibly due to a lack of highly exposed individuals; however, a recent independent study also did corroborate such an inverse association. The negative association between serum PFOS and testosterone indicates that testosterone production may be compromised in individuals with high PFOS exposure.
The authors received financial support from the European Commission (DEER, FP7-2007-212844), the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (grant nos. 27107068 and 09-067180), Rigshospitalet (grant no. 961506336), the University of Copenhagen, the Danish Ministry of Health and the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (MST-621-00013), and Kirsten and Freddy Johansen Foundation (grant no. 95-103-72087). The funding organizations played no role in the design and conduct of the study, in collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; or in the presentation, review or approval of the manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests.