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Alien roadside species more easily invade alpine than lowland plant communities in a subarctic mountain ecosystem.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259937
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89664
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Jonas J Lembrechts
Ann Milbau
Ivan Nijs
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89664
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Biodiversity
Ecosystem
Environment
Environmental Policy
Introduced species
Norway
Plants
Species Specificity
Abstract
Effects of roads on plant communities are not well known in cold-climate mountain ecosystems, where road building and development are expected to increase in future decades. Knowledge of the sensitivity of mountain plant communities to disturbance by roads is however important for future conservation purposes. We investigate the effects of roads on species richness and composition, including the plant strategies that are most affected, along three elevational gradients in a subarctic mountain ecosystem. We also examine whether mountain roads promote the introduction and invasion of alien plant species from the lowlands to the alpine zone. Observations of plant community composition were made together with abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in 60 T-shaped transects. Alpine plant communities reacted differently to road disturbances than their lowland counterparts. On high elevations, the roadside species composition was more similar to that of the local natural communities. Less competitive and ruderal species were present at high compared with lower elevation roadsides. While the effects of roads thus seem to be mitigated in the alpine environment for plant species in general, mountain plant communities are more invasible than lowland communities. More precisely, relatively more alien species present in the roadside were found to invade into the surrounding natural community at high compared to low elevations. We conclude that effects of roads and introduction of alien species in lowlands cannot simply be extrapolated to the alpine and subarctic environment.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24586947 View in PubMed
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Both seed germination and seedling mortality increase with experimental warming and fertilization in a subarctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286227
Source
AoB Plants. 2017 Sep;9(5):plx040
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Ann Milbau
Nicolas Vandeplas
Fred Kockelbergh
Ivan Nijs
Source
AoB Plants. 2017 Sep;9(5):plx040
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change is expected to force many species in arctic regions to migrate and track their climatic niche. This requires recruitment from seed, which currently shows very low rates in arctic regions, where long-lived and vegetatively reproducing plants dominate. Therefore, we pose the question whether recruitment (germination and seedling establishment) in arctic regions will significantly improve in a warmer world, and thus allow species to follow their climatic niche. We used a full factorial experiment to examine if realistic warmer temperatures (+3 ?C; infrared radiation) and increased nitrogen availability (+1.4 g N m(-2) year(-1)) affected germination, seedling survival and above- and below-ground seedling biomass in five species common in subarctic regions (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Betula nana, Pinus sylvestris, Solidago virgaurea, Vaccinium myrtillus). We found that warming increased seedling emergence in all species, but that subsequent mortality also increased, resulting in no net warming effect on seedling establishment. Warming slightly increased above-ground seedling biomass. Fertilization, on the other hand, did not influence seedling biomass, but it increased seedling establishment in B. nana while it reduced establishment in V. myrtillus. This may help B. nana dominate over V. myrtillus in warmer tundra. Surprisingly, no interactive effects between warming and fertilization were found. The lack of a general positive response of seedling establishment to warmer and more nutrient-rich conditions suggests that (sub)arctic species may experience difficulties in tracking their climatic niche. Predictions of future species distributions in arctic regions solely based on abiotic factors may therefore overestimate species' ranges due to their poor establishment. Also, the opposite response to fertilization of two key (sub)arctic dwarf shrubs, i.e. B. nana and V. myrtillus, could have important implications for the future development of arctic plant communities and argues for more research into the role of fertilization for plant establishment.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29026511 View in PubMed
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Does Climate Warming Stimulate or Inhibit Soil Protist Communities? A Test on Testate Amoebae in High-Arctic Tundra with Free-Air Temperature Increase.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99233
Source
Protist. 2010 Aug 12;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-12-2010
Author
Andrey N Tsyganov
Ivan Nijs
Louis Beyens
Author Affiliation
Research group Polar Ecology, Limnology and Geomorphology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Wilrijk), Belgium.
Source
Protist. 2010 Aug 12;
Date
Aug-12-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Soil testate amoebae assemblages in a grassland area at Zackenberg (Northeast Greenland) were subjected to simulated climate-warming during the growing season using the Free-Air Temperature Increase technique. Samples were collected in upper (0 - 3cm) and deeper (3 - 6cm) soil horizons. Mean temperature elevations at 2.5 and 7.5 cm depth were 2.58 +/- SD 1.11 and 2.13+/-SD 0.77 degrees C, respectively, and did not differ significantly. Soil moisture in the top 11cm was not affected by the warming. During the manipulation, the densities of living amoebae and empty shells were higher in the experimental plots but only in the upper layer. Possibly, testate amoebae in the deeper layer were limited by other factors, suggesting that warming enhances the carrying capacity only in favourable conditions. Species richness, on the other hand, was only increased in the deeper horizon. Warming did not change the percentage of individuals belonging to small-sized species in any of the living assemblages, contrary to our expectation that those species would quickly increase their density. However, in the empty shell assemblages, the proportion of small-sized individuals in the experimental plots was higher in both layers, indicating a rapid, transient increase in small amoebae before the first sampling date. Changes in successional state of testate amoebae assemblages in response to future climate change might thus be ephemeral, whereas alterations in density and species richness might be more sustained.
PubMed ID
20708962 View in PubMed
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The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in nonnative plant invasion along mountain roads.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature304629
Source
New Phytol. 2020 Sep 28; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-28-2020
Author
Jan Clavel
Jonas Lembrechts
Jake Alexander
Sylvia Haider
Jonathan Lenoir
Ann Milbau
Martin A Nuñez
Anibal Pauchard
Ivan Nijs
Erik Verbruggen
Author Affiliation
Research Group of Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk, 2610, Belgium.
Source
New Phytol. 2020 Sep 28; :
Date
Sep-28-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Plant associated mutualists can mediate invasion success by affecting the ecological niche of nonnative plant species. Anthropogenic disturbance is also key in facilitating invasion success through changes in biotic and abiotic conditions, but the combined effect of these two factors in natural environments is understudied. To better understand this interaction, we investigated how disturbance and its interaction with mycorrhizas could impact range dynamics of nonnative plant species in the mountains of Norway. Therefore, we studied the root colonisation and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in disturbed vs undisturbed plots along mountain roads. We found that roadside disturbance strongly increases fungal diversity and richness while also promoting AM fungal root colonisation in an otherwise ecto-mycorrhiza and ericoid-mycorrhiza dominated environment. Surprisingly, AM fungi associating with nonnative plant species were present across the whole elevation gradient, even above the highest elevational limit of nonnative plants, indicating that mycorrhizal fungi are not currently limiting the upward movement of nonnative plants. We conclude that roadside disturbance has a positive effect on AM fungal colonisation and richness, possibly supporting the spread of nonnative plants, but that there is no absolute limitation of belowground mutualists, even at high elevation.
PubMed ID
32984980 View in PubMed
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